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Acute toxicity of several organophosphorous insecticides and protection by cholinergic antagonists and 2-PAM on Artemia salina larvae

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Abstract

The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, methylchlorpyrifos, parathion and methylparathion to three age classes of Artemia salina was determined. In general, A. salina 24-h old was less sensitive to these organophosphorous insecticides (OPI) than A. salina 48-h old and A. salina 48-h old was significantly more tolerant than A. salina 72-h old, in contrast, chlorpyrifos was equally toxic to A. salina 48- and 72-h old. There were some differences among the three age classes of A. salina in the relative order of toxicity of OPI tested. The rank order of toxicity to A. salina 48-h old was methyl-parathion < parathion < methyl-chlorpyrifos < chlorpyrifos, while to A. salina 24- and 72-h old it was methyl-parathion = parathion < methyl-chlorpyrifos < chlorpyrifos.

The protective effect of the cholinergic antagonists atropine, hexamethonium, pirenzepine and 11-(2-((diethyl-amino) methyl)-1-piperidinylacetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)-(1,4)-benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) and a cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) on the mortality due to four selected OPI in Artemia salina 24-h old was investigated. The lethal action of OPI tested was completely prevented by pretreatment of Artemia salina 24-h old with 2-PAM (10−5 M) and atropine (10−4 M). However no concentration of hexamethonium, pirenzepine or AF-DX 116 protected 100% of the animals poisoned by LC84 of the OPI selected, maximum protection obtained was 71 to 88%. In contrast, the maximum inhibition of mortality obtained with AF-DX 116 pretreatment was about 55% because this compound was used at concentrations which were non toxic to control Artemia salina. Atropine, hexamethonium, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and 2-PAM afforded 50 % protection (IC50) of Artemia salina against mortality by LC84 of the OPI selected at concentrations in the range of 6.62×10−7–1.6×10−6 M, 2.38×10−4–2.05×10−3 M, 8.91×10−7–1.24×10−6 M, 9.66×10−8–1.34×10−7 M, and 1.95×10−8–2.73×10−8 M, respectively.

Pretreatment of atropine plus 2-PAM to determine whether this combination afforded greater inhibition of the lethality induced by four OPI tested than pretreatment with either atropine or 2-PAM alone was investigated. Atropine (10−5 M) in combination with 2-PAM (10−7 M) inhibited completely the acute toxicity of all OPI tested, while the pretreatment with atropine (10−6 M) plus 2-PAM at the same concentration gave a inhibition of mortality (about 62%) significantly greater than each antagonist alone (about 14 and 46%, respectively).

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Sánchez-Fortún, S., Sanz, F. & Barahona, M.V. Acute toxicity of several organophosphorous insecticides and protection by cholinergic antagonists and 2-PAM on Artemia salina larvae. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 31, 391–398 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00212678

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