Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 355–376 | Cite as

Cosmic ray investigation for the Voyager missions; energetic particle studies in the outer heliosphere—And beyond

  • E. C. Stone
  • R. E. Vogt
  • F. B. McDonald
  • B. J. Teegarden
  • J. H. Trainor
  • J. R. Jokipii
  • W. R. Webber
Article

Abstract

A cosmic-ray detector system (CRS) has been developed for the Voyager mission which will measure the energy spectrum of electrons from ≈3–110 MeV and the energy spectra and elemental composition of all cosmic-ray nuclei from hydrogen through iron over an energy range from ≈ 1–500 MeV/nuc. Isotopes of hydrogen through sulfur will be resolved from ≈ 2–75 MeV/nuc. Studies with CRS data will provide information on the energy content, origin and acceleration process, life history, and dynamics of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and contribute to an understanding of the nucleosynthesis of elements in the cosmic-ray sources. Particular emphasis will be placed on low-energy phenomena that are expected to exist in interstellar space and are known to be present in the outer Solar System. This investigation will also add to our understanding of the transport of cosmic rays, Jovian electrons, and low-energy interplanetary particles over an extended region of interplanetary space. A major contribution to these areas of study will be the measurement of three-dimensional streaming patterns of nuclei from H through Fe and electrons over an extended energy range, with a precision that will allow determination of anisotropies down to 1%. The required combination of charge resolution, reliability and redundance has been achieved with systems consisting entirely of solid-state charged-particle detectors.

Keywords

Interplanetary Space Interstellar Space Outer Solar System Charge Resolution Extended Energy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, J. K., Brown, L. W., Clark, T. A., Stone, R. G., and Weber, R. R.: 1969, Astrophys. J. Lett. 157, L163.Google Scholar
  2. Chenette, D. L., Conlon, T. F., and Simpson, J. A.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3551.Google Scholar
  3. Cummings, A. C., Stone, E. C., and Vogt, R. E.: 1973, Proc. 13th Intl. Cosmic Ray Conf., Denver, 1, 335.Google Scholar
  4. Fisk, L. A.: 1974, in High Energy Particles and Quanta in Astrophysics, F. B. McDonald and C. E. Fichtel (eds.), M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, p. 170.Google Scholar
  5. Fisk, L. A., Kozlovsky, B., and Ramaty, R.: 1974, Astrophys. J. Lett. 190, L35.Google Scholar
  6. Gleeson, L. J., Krimigis, S. M., and Axford, W. I.: 1971, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 2228.Google Scholar
  7. Hovestadt, D., Vollmer, O., Gloeckler, G., and Fan, C. Y.: 1973, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 650.Google Scholar
  8. Hoyle, F. and Clayton, D. D.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 191, 705.Google Scholar
  9. Hundhausen, A. J. and Gosling, J. T.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1436.Google Scholar
  10. Jokipii, J. R.: 1971, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 9, 27.Google Scholar
  11. Jokipii, J. R. and Levy, E. H.: 1977, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  12. Marshall, F. E. and Stone, E. C.: 1977, Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 57.Google Scholar
  13. McDonald, F. B., Teegarden, B. J., Trainor, J. H., and Webber, W. R.: 1974, Astrophys. J. Lett. 187, L105.Google Scholar
  14. McDonald, F. B. and Trainor, J. H.: 1976 in T. Gehrels (ed.), Jupiter, Univ. of Arizona Press, p. 961.Google Scholar
  15. McDonald, F. B., Teegarden, B. J., Trainor, J. H., von Rosenvinge, T. T., and Webber, W. R.: 1976 Astrophys. J. Lett. 203, L149.Google Scholar
  16. McDonald, F. B., Lal, N., Trainor, J. H., and Van Hollebeke, M. A. I.: 1977, Astrophys. J. (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Mewaldt, R. A., Stone, E. C., Vidor, S. B., and Vogt, R. E.: 1976a, Astrophys. J. 205, 931.Google Scholar
  18. Mewaldt, R. A., Stone, E. C., and Vogt, R. E.: 1976b, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2397.Google Scholar
  19. Meyer, P.: 1969, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 7, 1.Google Scholar
  20. Meyer, P., Ramaty, R., and Webber, W. R.: 1974, Physics Today, 27, 23.Google Scholar
  21. Ramaty, R.: 1974, in F. B. McDonald and C. E. Fichtel (eds.), High Energy Particles and Quanta in Astrophysics, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, p. 122.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, E. J. and Wolfe, J. H.: 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 137.Google Scholar
  23. Teegarden, B. J., McDonald, F. B., Trainor, J. H., Webber, W. R., and Roelof, E.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3615.Google Scholar
  24. Urch, I. H. and Gleeson, L. J.: 1972, Astrophys. Space Sci. 16, 55.Google Scholar
  25. Webber, W. R.: 1968, Australian J. Phys. 21, 845.Google Scholar
  26. Webber, W. R., McDonald, F. B., Trainor, J. H., and von Rosenvmge, T. T.: 1977, private communica-tion.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. C. Stone
    • 1
  • R. E. Vogt
    • 1
  • F. B. McDonald
    • 2
  • B. J. Teegarden
    • 2
  • J. H. Trainor
    • 2
  • J. R. Jokipii
    • 3
  • W. R. Webber
    • 4
  1. 1.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  3. 3.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  4. 4.University of New HampshireDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations