Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 259–287 | Cite as

The plasma experiment on the 1977 Voyager Mission

  • H. S. Bridge
  • J. W. Belcher
  • R. J. Butler
  • A. J. Lazarus
  • A. M. Mavretic
  • J. D. Sullivan
  • G. L. Siscoe
  • V. M. Vasyliunas
Article

Abstract

This paper contains a brief description of the plasma experiment to be flown on the 1977 Voyager Mission, its principal scientific objectives, and the expected results.

The instrument consists of two Faraday cup plasma detectors: one pointed along and one at right angles to the Earth-spacecraft line. The Earth-pointing detector uses a novel geometrical arrangement: it consists of three Faraday cups, each of which views a different direction in velocity space. With this detector, accurate values of plasma parameters (velocity, density, and pressure) can be obtained for plasma conditions expected between 1 and 20 AU. The energy range for protons and for electrons is from 10 to 5950 eV. Two sequential energy per charge scans are employed with nominal values of ΔE/E equal to 29%, and 3.6%. The two scans allow the instrument to cover a broad range between subsonic (M < 1) and highly supersonic (M-100) flows; thus, significant measurements can be made in a hot planetary magnetosheath as well as in a cold solar wind. In addition, the use of two energy resolutions during the cruise phase of the mission allows simultaneously the measurement of solar wind properties and a search for interstellar ions.

The Earth-pointing detector cluster has an approximately conical field of view with a half angle of 90°. The exceptionally large field of view makes this detector especially suited for use on a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Both the solar wind direction during the cruise phase of the mission, and the deviated magnetosheath flow directions expected at Jupiter and Saturn fall within the field of view of the main detector; thus, no mechanical or electrical scanning is required. An additional sensor with a field of view perpendicular to that of the main cluster, is included to improve the spatial coverage for the drifting or corotating positive ions expected at planetary encounter. This detector is also used to make measurements of electrons in the energy range 10 to 5950 eV.

The scientific goals include studies of (a) the properties and radial evolution of the solar wind, (b) the interaction of the solar wind with Jupiter, (c) the sources, properties and morphology of the Jovian magnetospheric plasma, (d) the interaction of magnetospheric plasma with the Galilean satellites with particular emphasis on plasma properties in the vicinity of Io, (e) the interaction of the solar wind with Saturn and the Saturnian satellites with particular emphasis on Titan, and (f) ions of interstellar origin.

Keywords

Solar Wind Detector Cluster Magnetospheric Plasma Plasma Experiment Galilean Satellite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acuña, M. H. and Ness, N. F.: 1976, in T. Gehrels (ed.), Jupiter, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, p. 830.Google Scholar
  2. Axford, W. I.: 1973, Space Sci. Rev. 14, 582.Google Scholar
  3. Brice, N. M. and McDonough, T. R.: 1973, Icarus 18, 206.Google Scholar
  4. Bridge, H. S., Dilworth, C., Rossi, B., Scherb, F., and Lyon, E. F.: 1960, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 3053.Google Scholar
  5. Bridge, H. S., and Vasyliunas, V. M.: 1973, EOS Trans. AGU, 54, 440.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, L. W.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 198, L89.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, R. A. and Yung, Y. L.: 1976, in T. Gehrels (ed.), Jupiter, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, p. 1102.Google Scholar
  8. Carlson, R. W., Bhattacharyga, J. C., Smith, B. A., Johnson, T. V., Hidayat, B., Smith, S. A., Taylor, G. E., O'Leary, B. T., and Brinkmann, R. T.: 1973, Science 182, 53.Google Scholar
  9. Collard, H. R. and Wolfe, J. H.: 1974, in C. T. Russell (ed.), Solar Wind Three, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  10. Coroniti, F. V.: 1974, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 27, 261.Google Scholar
  11. Coroniti, F. V.: 1975, in V. Formisano (ed.), The Magnetospheres of the Earth and Jupiter, D. Reidel Publishing Co., p. 391.Google Scholar
  12. Fang, T.-M., Smyth, W. H., and McElroy, M. B.: 1976, Planet. Space Sci. 24, 577.Google Scholar
  13. Frank, L. A., Ackerson, K. L., Wolfe, J. H., and Mihalov, J. D.: J. Geophys. Res. 81, 457.Google Scholar
  14. Goldreich, P. and Lynden-Bell, D.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 156, 59.Google Scholar
  15. Gosling, J. T., Hundhausen, A. J., and Bame, S. J.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2111.Google Scholar
  16. Gurnett, D. A.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 175, 525.Google Scholar
  17. Hill, T. W. and Michel, F. C.: 1975, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 967.Google Scholar
  18. Hill, T. W. and Dessler, A. J.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3383.Google Scholar
  19. Holzer, T. E.: 1972, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5407.Google Scholar
  20. Hundhausen, A. J.: 1973a, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 1528.Google Scholar
  21. Hundhausen, A. J.: 1973b, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 2035.Google Scholar
  22. Hundhausen, A. J. and Gosling, J. T.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1436.Google Scholar
  23. Intriligator, D. S. and Wolfe, J. H.: 1976, in T. Gehrels (ed.), Jupiter, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, p. 848.Google Scholar
  24. Ioannidis, G. and Brice, N. M.: 1971, Icarus 14, 360.Google Scholar
  25. Kupo, I., Mekler, Y., and Eviatar, A.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 205, L51.Google Scholar
  26. Lazarus, A. J.: 1975, EOS Trans AGU, 56, 438.Google Scholar
  27. McDonough, T. R. and Brice, N. M.: 1973, Icarus 20, 136.Google Scholar
  28. Mendis, D. A. and Axford, W. I.: 1974, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2, 419.Google Scholar
  29. Neugebauer, M. and Eviatar, A.: 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 708.Google Scholar
  30. Parker, E. N.: 1963, in Interplanetary Dynamical Processes, John Wiley and Sons, New York, chapters 9 and 10.Google Scholar
  31. Piddington, J. H.: 1969, in Cosmic Electrodynamics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 197.Google Scholar
  32. Semar, C. L.: 1970, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6892.Google Scholar
  33. Scarf, F. L.: 1976, in T. Gehrels (ed.), Jupiter, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, p. 870.Google Scholar
  34. Shawhan, S. D., Hubbard, R. F., Joyce, G., and Gurnett, D. A.: 1973, in R. Grard (ed.), Photon and Particle Interactions with Surfaces in Space, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 405.Google Scholar
  35. Siscoe, G. L. and Chen, C. K.: 1977, Icarus 31, 1.Google Scholar
  36. Siscoe, G. L.: 1977a, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1641.Google Scholar
  37. Siscoe, G. L.: 1977b, Paper prepared for the NAS sub-panel on Heliosphere Hydromagnetics, Jan. 1977.Google Scholar
  38. Smith, E. J., Davis, L., Jr., Jones, D. E., Coleman, P. J., Jr., Colburn, D. S., Dyal, P., Sonett, C. P., and Frandsen, A. M. A.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3501.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, E. J. and Wolfe, J. H.: 1976, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 137.Google Scholar
  40. Smith, E. J., Davis, L., Jr., and Jones, D. E.: 1976, in T. Gehrels (ed.), Jupiter, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, p. 788.Google Scholar
  41. Trainor, J. H., McDonald, F. B., Geegarden, B. J., Webber, W. R., and Roelof, E. C.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3600.Google Scholar
  42. Van Allen, J. A., Baker, D. N., Randall, B. A., Thomsen, M. F., Sentman, D. D., and Flint, H. R.: 1974, Science 183, 309.Google Scholar
  43. Vasyliunas, V. M: 1971, in R. H. Lovbergs (ed.), Methods of Experimental Physics, Vol. 9B of Plasma Physics, Academic Press, p. 49.Google Scholar
  44. Vasyliunas, V. M.: 1975, in V. Formisano (ed.), The Magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland, p. 179.Google Scholar
  45. Vasyliunas, V. M.: 1976, in B. M. McCormac (ed.), Magnetospheric Particles and Fields, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland, p. 99.Google Scholar
  46. Vasyliunas, V. M. and Siscoe, G. L.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 1247.Google Scholar
  47. Webster, D. L., Alksne, A. Y., and Whitten, R. C.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 174, 685.Google Scholar
  48. Wehinger, P. A., Wyckoff, S., and Frohlich, A.: 1976, Icarus, 27, 425.Google Scholar
  49. Wu, C. S.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 186, 313.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. S. Bridge
    • 1
  • J. W. Belcher
    • 1
  • R. J. Butler
    • 1
  • A. J. Lazarus
    • 1
  • A. M. Mavretic
    • 1
  • J. D. Sullivan
    • 1
  • G. L. Siscoe
    • 2
  • V. M. Vasyliunas
    • 3
  1. 1.Center for Space Research and Physics DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of MeteorologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Max-Planck-Institut Für AeronomieKatlenburg-LindauGermany

Personalised recommendations