Toxicity of seleno-L-methionine, seleno-DL-methionine, high selenium wheat, and selenized yeast to mallard ducklings

  • G. H. Heinz
  • D. J. Hoffman
  • L. J. LeCaptain
Article

Abstract

The toxicity of four chemical forms of selenium (seleno-L-methionine, seleno-DL-methionine, selenized yeast, and high selenium wheat) was compared in day-old mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos). In the first experiment, in which the basal diet was 75% wheat, survival after 2 weeks was lower for ducklings fed 30 μg/g selenium as seleno-L-methionine (36%) than for ducklings fed 30 μg/g selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (100%) or 30 μg/g selenium from high selenium yeast (88%). The concentration of selenium at 2 weeks in the livers of survivors was similar for ducklings fed 15 μg/g selenium as seleno-DL-methionine (12 μg/g, wet weight), seleno-L-methionine (11 μg/g), and high selenium wheat (11 μg/g), but was lower when the selenium came from selenized yeast (6.2 μg/g). When fed 30 μg/g selenium from the various sources, the selenium concentrations in liver were 20 μg/g for seleno-DL-methionine, 19 μg/g for seleno-L-methionine, and 9.9 μg/g for selenized yeast. In a second experiment, in which the basal diet was a commercial duck feed, survival after 2 weeks was 100% in ducklings fed 30 μg/g selenium as seleno-DL-methionine, seleno-L-methionine, or selenized yeast. Selenium concentrations in liver were similar for ducklings fed the 30-μg/g selenium diets as the DL or L forms of selenomethionine (27 and 25 μg/g), but lower for ducklings fed selenized yeast (13 μg/g). The greater toxicity of the L form of selenomethionine was probably related to the palatability or nutritional nature of the wheat-based diet used in experiment 1, but the exact reason for the difference between the DL and L forms is unknown. Biologically incorporated selenium, derived from high selenium wheat, was no more toxic than selenium derived from the two purified forms of selenomethionine, and the selenium in selenized yeast was not as toxic as that in the two forms of selenomethionine.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beilstein MA, Whanger PD (1986) Deposition of dietary organic and inorganic selenium in rat erythrocyte proteins. J Nutr 116:1701–1710Google Scholar
  2. Beilstein MA, Whanger PD (1987) Metabolism of selenomethionine and effects of interacting compounds by mammalian cells in culture. J Inorg Biochem 29:137–152Google Scholar
  3. Cukierski MJ, Willhite CC, Lasley BL, Hendrie TA, Book SA, Cox DN, Hendrickx AG (1989) 30-day oral toxicity study of L-selenomethionine in female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Fund Appl Toxicol 13:26–39Google Scholar
  4. Hamilton SJ, Buhl KJ, Faerber NL, Wiedmeyer RH, Bullard FA (1990) Toxicity of organic selenium in the diet to chinook salmon. Environ Toxicol Chem 9:347–358Google Scholar
  5. Hassan S (1987) Comparative effects of selenium in oats, meat meal, selenomethionine and sodium selenite for prevention of exudative diathesis in chicks. J Vet Med 34: 204–215Google Scholar
  6. Hassan S, Hakkarainen RVJ, Lindberg PO (1987a) Bioavailability to chicks of selenium in barley, oats and meat meal. Acta Vet Scand 28:81–92Google Scholar
  7. — (1987b) Bioavailability to chicks of selenium in wheat and fish meal. J Vet Med 34:353–363Google Scholar
  8. Heinz GH, Hoffman DJ, Krynitsky AJ, Weller DMG (1987) Reproduction in mallards fed selenium. Environ Toxicol Chem 6:423–433Google Scholar
  9. Heinz GH, Hoffman DJ, Gold LG (1988) Toxicity of organic and inorganic selenium to mallard ducklings. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 17:561–568Google Scholar
  10. — (1989) Impaired reproduction of mallards fed an organic form of selenium. J Wildl Manage 53:418–428Google Scholar
  11. Hoffman DJ, Heinz GH (1988) Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of selenium in the diet of mallards. J Toxicol Environ Health 24:477–490Google Scholar
  12. Hoffman DJ, Heinz GH, Krynitsky AJ (1989) Hepatic glutathione metabolism and lipid peroxidation in response to excess dietary selenomethionine and selenite in mallard ducklings. J Toxicol Environ Health 27:263–271Google Scholar
  13. Hoffman DJ, Sanderson CJ, LeCaptain LJ, Cromartie E, Pendleton GW (1992) Interactive effects of selenium, methionine, and dietary protein on survival, growth, and physiology in mallard ducklings. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 23:163–171Google Scholar
  14. Korhola M, Vainio A, Edelmann K (1986) Selenium yeast. Ann Clin Res 18:65–68Google Scholar
  15. Krapu GL (1979) Nutrition of female dabbling ducks during reproduction. In: Bookout TA (ed) Waterfowl and wetlands—An integrated review. The Wildlife Society, Washington, DC, pp 59–70Google Scholar
  16. Krapu GL, Swanson GA (1975) Some nutritional aspects of reproduction in prairie nesting pintails. J Wildl Manage 39:156–162Google Scholar
  17. Maier KJ, Foe CG, Knight AW (1993) Comparative toxicity of selenate, selenite, seleno-DL-methionine, and seleno-DL-cystine to Daphnia magna. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:755–763Google Scholar
  18. McAdam PA, Levander OA (1987) Chronic toxicity and retention of dietary selenium fed to rats as D- or L-selenomethionine, selenite, or selenate. Nutr Res 7:601–610Google Scholar
  19. Ohlendorf HM (1986) Aquatic birds and selenium in the San Joaquin Valley. In: Selenium and agricultural drainage: Implications for San Francisco Bay and the California environment. Bay Institute, San Francisco, pp 15–24Google Scholar
  20. Ohlendorf HM, Hoffman DJ, Saiki MK, Aldrich TW (1986) Embryonic mortality and abnormalities of aquatic birds: Apparent impacts of selenium from irrigation drainwater. Sci Total Environ 52:49–63Google Scholar
  21. Olson OE, Novacek EJ, Whitehead EI, Palmer IS (1970) Investigations on selenium in wheat. Phytochemistry 9:1181–1188Google Scholar
  22. Spallholz JE, Raftery A (1987) Nutritional, chemical, and toxicological evaluation of a high-selenium yeast. In: Combs GF Jr, Spallholz JE, Levander OA, Oldfield JE (eds) Selenium in biology and medicine. Part A. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., NY, pp 516–529Google Scholar
  23. Swanson CA (1987) Comparative utilization of selenite, selenomethionine, and selenized yeast by the laying hen. Nutr Res 7:529–537Google Scholar
  24. Yasumoto K, Suzuki T, Yoshida M (1988) Identification of selenomethionine in soybean protein. J. Agric Food Chem 36:463–67Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Heinz
    • 1
  • D. J. Hoffman
    • 1
  • L. J. LeCaptain
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. National Biological ServicePatuxent Environmental Science CenterLaurelUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceSpokane

Personalised recommendations