, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 29–34 | Cite as

The distribution of soil erosion as a function of slope aspect and parent material in Ciskei, Southern Africa

  • Weaver Alex van Breda 
Soil Erosion and Host Materials in Africa


The paper investigates the relationship between geology, soils and slope aspects in four Ciskei catchments. The primary aim of the study was to determine whether any simple bivariate relationship exists between these independent variables and soil erosion. The secondary aim of the study was to determine whether combining the three independent variables and using a multivariate analysis could produce a more lucid picture of spatial variations in soil erosion. The results obtained from the study show that all the three independent variables (geology, soil type and slope aspects) can be used to account for spatial variations in soil erosion in the study catchments. A parent material classification (based on geology and soil type) and a parent material plus slope aspect classification provide more detailed explanation for variations in the extent of soil erosion in the study area. The paper discusses possible reasons for the observed relationships and the need for more detailed multivariate investigations.


Multivariate Analysis Environmental Management Spatial Variation Soil Type Soil Erosion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andre, J. E.; Anderson, H. W.: Variation of soil erodibility with geology, geographic zone, elevation and vegetation type in northern California wildlands. Journal for Geophysical Research 66, 3351–3358 (1961)Google Scholar
  2. ARDRI: 1:10 000 Soil Map for the Amatole Basin. Unpublished 1981.Google Scholar
  3. Bader, C. J.: Typical Soils of the East London District. In: Board, C. (ed.), The Border Region, Natural Environment and Land Use in the Eastern Cape. Oxford University Press, Cape Town 1962.Google Scholar
  4. Berjak, M.; Fincham, R. J.; Liggit, B.; Watson, H. K.: Temporal and spatial dimensions of gully erosion in Northern Natal, South Africa. Proceedings of the Symposium of ISPRS 26, 4, 83–593 (1986)Google Scholar
  5. Besler, H.: Slope properties, slope processes and soil erosion risk in the tropical rainfall forest of Kalimantan Timur (Indonesian Borneo). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 12, 195–204 (1987)Google Scholar
  6. Churchill, R. R.: Aspect-related differences in badlands slope morphology. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 71, 3, 374–388 (1981)Google Scholar
  7. Cuff, J. R. I.: Quantifying erosion-causing parameters in a New Zealand watershed. In: El-Swaify, S. A.; Moldenhauer, W. C.; Lo, A. (eds.), Soil Conversation. pp. 99–112. Soil Conversation Society of America, Iowa 1985.Google Scholar
  8. Danckwerts, J. E.: Management of veld types, Sweet Grassveld. In: Danckwerts, J. E.; Teague, W. R. (eds.) Veld Management in the Eastern Cape. Unpublished report, Pasture Research Section, Dohne Agricultural Research Station 1987.Google Scholar
  9. D'Huyvetter, J. H. H.; Laker, M. C.: Determination of Threshold Slope Percentages for the Identification and Delineation of Arable Land in Ciskei. Final Report to the CSIR, Pretoria 1985.Google Scholar
  10. Dixon, W. J. (ed.): BMDP Statistical Software. University of California, Los Angeles 1985.Google Scholar
  11. Edwards, P. J.: Principles of grazing management. In: Tainton, M. (ed.) Veld and Pasture in South Africa, pp. 325–354. Shuter and Shooter, Pietermaritzburg 1981.Google Scholar
  12. Eloff, J. F.: Erosie Kwesbaarheid en-indekse van S. A. Gronde. 1973.Google Scholar
  13. Elwell, H. A.: Determination of erodibility of a subtropical clay soil: a laboratory rainfall simulator experiment. Journal of Soil Science 37, 345–350 (1986)Google Scholar
  14. Garland, G. G.: An appraisal of South African research into runoff-erosion. South African Geographical Journal 64, 138–143 (1982)Google Scholar
  15. Garland, G. G.: Vehicle compaction, human trampling and surface soil properties at a site in Kamberg nature reserve, South Africa. Isizwe 6, 1–9 (1983)Google Scholar
  16. Granger, J. E.: Fire in forest. In: Booysen, P. de V.; Tainton, N. M. (eds.), Ecological Effects of Fire in South African Ecosystems, pp. 177–197. Springer-Verlag, New York 1984.Google Scholar
  17. Hamilton, G. H.: The assessment of soil erodibility. Journal of the Soil Conservation Service of N. S. W. 33, 2, 106–107 (1977)Google Scholar
  18. Heydorn, A. E. F.; Tinley, K. L.: Estuaries of the Cape. CSIR Report 380, Pretoria 1980.Google Scholar
  19. Hill, Kaplan, Scott and Partners: Keiskamma River Basin Study, Zwelitsha. Ciskei Government, Bisho 1977.Google Scholar
  20. Hill, Kaplan, Scott and Partners, a: 1:10 000 Soils Map for the Yellowwoods Basin. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  21. Hill, Kaplan, Scott and Partners, a: 1:10 000 Soil Code Map for the Roxeni Basin. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, M. R.; Keyser, A. W.: 1:250 000 Geology sheet, King Williamstown, Government Printer, Pretoria 1976.Google Scholar
  23. Kennedy, B. A.: Valley-side slopes and climate. In: Derbyshire, E. (ed.), Geomorphology and Climate, pp. 171–201. John Wiley, London 1976.Google Scholar
  24. McPhee, P. J.; Smith, A. A.; Venter, J. C.; Hartman, M. O.; Crosby, C. T.: The South African Rainfall Simulator Programme for assessing soil loss and runoff. In: Maaren, H. (ed.), Proceedings of the First South African National Hydrological Symposium, pp. 352–368. CSIR report TR 119, Pretoria 1983.Google Scholar
  25. Macvicar, C. N.; Loxton, R. F.; Lambrechts, J. J. N.; Le Roux, J.; De Villiers, J. M.; Verster, E.; Merryweather, F. R.; van Rooyen, T. H.: Soil Classification — A Binomial System for South Africa. Department of Agricultural and Technical Services, Pretoria 1977.Google Scholar
  26. Moldenhauer, W. L.; Long, D. C.: Influence of rainfall energy on soil loss and infiltration rates, Part I: Effect over a wide range of texture. Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America 28, 813–817 (1964)Google Scholar
  27. Mountain, E. D.: Geology of the Keiskammahoek District. In: Mountain, E. D. (ed.), The Natural History of the Keiskammahoek District, Volume 1: Keiskamma Rural Survey, pp. 8–26. Shuter and Shooter, Pietermaritzburg 1952.Google Scholar
  28. Reid, I.: The influence of slope orientation upon the soil moisture regime, and its hydrogeomorphological significance. Journal of Hydrology 19, 309–321 (1973)Google Scholar
  29. Rooseboom, A.: Sedimentprodusiekaart vir Suid-Afrika. Department of Water Affairs, Pretoria, Technical Report 61. Unpublished 1975.Google Scholar
  30. Rooseboom, A.: Sediment studies. In: Maaren, M. (ed.), Proceedings of the First South African National Hydrological Symposium, pp. 346–351. CSIR report TR 119, Pretoria 1983.Google Scholar
  31. SARCCUS: A System for the Classification of Soil Erosion in the SARCCUS Region. South African Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Pretoria 1981.Google Scholar
  32. SLEMSA: Soil loss estimator for southern Africa. Natal Agricultural Research Bulletin 1976.Google Scholar
  33. Steila, D.: The Geography of Soils. Prentice Hall, New Jersey 1976.Google Scholar
  34. Weaver, A. van B.: Landuse and soil erosion changes in South African and Ciskeian portions of the Yellowwoods drainage basins between 1975 and 1984. Earth-Science Reviews 25, 501–507 (1988)Google Scholar
  35. Wischmeier, W. H.; Johnson, L. B.; Cross, B. V.: A soil erodibility nomograph for farmland and construction sites. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 26, 189–193 (1971)Google Scholar
  36. Willen, D. W.: Surface soil textural and potential erodibility characteristics of some southern Sierra Nevada forests sites. Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America 29, 213–218 (1965)Google Scholar
  37. Yamamoto, T.; Anderson, H. W.: Erodibility indices for Wildland soils of Oahu, Hawaii, as related to soil forming factors. Water Resources Research 3, 3, 785–798 (1967)Google Scholar
  38. Young, R. A.; Onstad, C. A.: The effect of soil characteristics on erosion and nutrient loss. In: Walling, D. E. (ed.), Recent Developments in the Explanation and Prediction of Erosion and Sediment Yield, pp. 105–113. IAHS Publication 137 1982.Google Scholar
  39. Zachar, D.: Soil Erosion. Elsevier, New York 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weaver Alex van Breda 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations