Skip to main content

Inter- and intracellular distribution of amino acids and other metabolites in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves

Abstract

In illuminated maize (Zea mays L.) leaves, the distribution of triose phosphates, 3-phosphoglycerate, malate and various amino acids between the chloroplastic and the extrachloroplastic compartments of mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells, and the total vacuolar fraction of the leaves, was determined by a combination of previously published methods, for separating mesophyll from bundle-sheath material, and for nonaqueous subcellular fractionation. The results show that the triose phosphate/3-phosphoglycerate ratio in the extrachloroplastic fraction of the mesophyll cells is about 20-fold higher than in the bundle-sheath cells, which is in accordance with a triose phosphate/phosphoglycerate shuttle postulated previously. Whereas the vacuolar compartment was shown to contain most of the cellular malate, amino acids were found to be almost absent from this compartment. The amino-acid pattern in the extrachloroplastic fraction of the bundle-sheath cells largely resembled the pattern in whole leaves. These results show that for future studies the analysis of amino-acid contents in whole maize leaves can be used as a measure for the amino-acid levels in the cytosol of bundle-sheath cells.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Abbreviations

BS:

bundle sheath

Chl:

chlorophyll

αMan:

α-mannosidase

ME:

malic enzyme

MDH:

malate dehydrogenase

MS:

mesophyll

PEPCase:

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

PGA:

3-phosphoglycerate

trioseP:

triose phosphate

References

  1. Barlow, C.A., McCully, M.E. (1972) The ruby laser instrument for cutting the stylets of feeding aphids. Can. J. Zool 59, 1497–1498

    Google Scholar 

  2. Fisher, D.B., Frame, J.M. (1984) A guide for the use of the exudingstylet technique in phloem physiology. Planta 161, 385–393

    Google Scholar 

  3. Flügge, U.-I., Heldt, H.W. (1986) Chloroplast phosphate-triosephosphate-phosphoglycerate translocator: Its identification, isolation and reconstitution. Methods Enzymol. 125, 716–720

    Google Scholar 

  4. Gerhardt, R., Heldt, H.W. (1984) Measurement of subcellular metabolite levels in leaves by fractionation of freeze-stopped material in nonaqueous media. Plant Physiol. 75, 542–547

    Google Scholar 

  5. Gerhardt, R., Stitt, M., Heldt, H.W. (1987) Subcellular metabolite levels in spinach leaves. Plant Physiol. 83, 399–407

    Google Scholar 

  6. Heber, U. (1957) Zur Frage der Localisation von löslichen Zuckern in der Pflanzenzelle. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 70, 371–382

    Google Scholar 

  7. Leegood, R.C. (1985) The intercellular compartmentation of metabolites in leaves of Zea mays L. Planta 164, 163–171

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ohnishi, J., Flügge, U.-I., Heldt, H.W. (1989) Phosphate translocator of mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts of the C4 plant, Panicum miliaceum L. Plant Physiol. 91, 1507–1511

    Google Scholar 

  9. Riens, B., Lohaus, G., Heineke, D., Heldt, H.W. (1991) Amino acid and sucrose content determined in the cytosolic, chloroplastic and vacuolar compartments and in the phloem sap of spinach leaves. Plant Physiol. 97, 227–233

    Google Scholar 

  10. Slack, C.R., Hatch, M.D., Goodchild, D.J. (1969) Distribution of enzymes in mesophyll and parenchyma sheath chloroplasts of maize leaves in relation to the C4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis. Biochem. J. 114, 489–498

    Google Scholar 

  11. Stitt, M., Heldt, H.W. (1985a) Control of photosynthetic sucrose synthesis by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. Intercellular metabolite distribution and properties of the cytosolic fructose-bisphosphatase in leaves of Zea mays L. Planta 164, 179–188

    Google Scholar 

  12. Stitt, M., Heldt, H.W. (1985b) Generation and maintenance of concentration gradients between the mesophyll and bundle sheath in maize leaves. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 808, 400–414

    Google Scholar 

  13. Stocking, C.R. (1959) Chloroplast isolation in nonaqueous media. Plant Physiol. 34, 56–61

    Google Scholar 

  14. Usuda, H. (1988) Nonaqueous purification of maize mesophyll chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 87, 427–430

    Google Scholar 

  15. Weiner, H., Blechschmidt-Schneider, S., Mohme, H., Eschrich, W., Heldt, H.W. (1991) Phloem transport of amino acids. Comparison of amino acid contents of maize leaves and of the sieve tube exudate. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 29, 19–23

    Google Scholar 

  16. Winter, H., Lohaus, G., Heldt, H.W. (1992) Phloem transport of amino acids and sucrose in correlation to the corresponding metabolite levels in barley leaves. Plant Physiol, in press

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

This work was supported by the Bundesminister für Forschung und Technologie.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Weiner, H., Heldt, H.W. Inter- and intracellular distribution of amino acids and other metabolites in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Planta 187, 242–246 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00201946

Download citation

Key words

  • Amino acid (inter-, intracellular distribution)
  • Leaf (metabolite distribution)
  • Photosynthesis (metabolites)
  • Zea (metabolite distribution)