Space Science Reviews

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 103–127 | Cite as

Voyager imaging experiment

  • B. A. Smith
  • G. A. Briggs
  • G. E. Danielson
  • A. F. CookII
  • M. E. Davies
  • G. E. Hunt
  • H. Masursky
  • L. A. Soderblom
  • T. C. Owen
  • C. Sagan
  • V. E. Suomi


The overall objective of this experiment is exploratory reconnaissance of Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites, and Saturn's rings. Such reconnaissance, at resolutions and phase angles unobtainable from Earth, can be expected to provide much new data relevant to the atmospheric and/or surface properties of these bodies. The experiment also has the following specific objectives:

Observe and characterize the global circulation of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn;

Determine the horizontal and vertical structure of the visible clouds and establish their relationship to the belted appearance and dynamical properties of the planetary atmospheres;

Determine the vertical structure of high, optically-thin, scattering layers on Jupiter and Saturn;

Determine the nature of anomalous features such as the Great Red Spot, South Equatorial Belt disturbances, etc.;

Characterize the nature of the colored material in the clouds of Jupiter and Saturn, and identify the nature and sources of chromophores on Io and Titan;

Perform comparative geologic studies of many satellites at less than 15-km resolution;

Map and characterize the geologic structure of several satellites at high resolution (∼1 km);

Investigate the existence and nature of atmospheres on the satellites;

Determine the mass, size, and shape of many of the satellites by direct measurement;

Determine the direction of the spin axes and periods of rotation of several satellites, and establish coordinate systems for the larger satellites;

Map the radial distribution of material in Saturn's rings at high resolution;

Determine the optical scattering properties of the primaries, rings, and satellites at several wavelengths and phase angles;

Search for novel physical phenomena, e.g., phenomena associated with the Io flux tube, meteors, aurorae, lightning, or satellite shadows.


Phase Angle Geologic Structure Vertical Structure Flux Tube Planetary Atmosphere 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, A. F. O'D: 1962, The Planet Saturn, Faber and Faber, London.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, A. L., Baker, L. R., Beshore, E., Blenman, C., Castello, N. D., Chen, Y. P., Doose, L. R., Elston, J. P., Fountain, J. W., Gehrels, T., Kendall, J. H., Kenknight, C. E., Norton, R. A., Swindell, W., and Tomasko, M. G.: 1975, Science 188, 468.Google Scholar
  3. Barker, E. S. and Trafton, L. M.: 1973, Icarus 20, 444.Google Scholar
  4. Batson, R. M.: 1973, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4424.Google Scholar
  5. Bergstralh, J. T., Matson, D. L., and Johnson, T. V.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 195, L131.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, R. A.: 1972, in Exploration of the Solar System, 65th Symposium, International Astronomical Union, Torun, Poland.Google Scholar
  7. Carlson, R. W., Bhattacharyya, J. C., Smith, B. A., Johnson, T. V., Hidayat, B., Smith, S. A., Taylor, G. E., O'Leary, B., and Brinkmann, R. T.: 1973, Science 182, 53.Google Scholar
  8. Chase, S. C., Renz, R. D., Munch, G., Neugebauer, G., Schroeder, and Trafton, L. M.: 1974, Science 183, 315.Google Scholar
  9. Coffeen, D. L.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3645.Google Scholar
  10. Cook, A. F.: 1977, to be published.Google Scholar
  11. Cook, A. F. and Franklin, F.: Astron. J. (submitted).Google Scholar
  12. Danielson, R. E., Caldwell, J. J., and Larach, D. R.: 1973, Icarus 20, 437.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, M. E.: 1972, Icarus 17, 116.Google Scholar
  14. Davies, M. E. and Batson, R. M.: 1975, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2417.Google Scholar
  15. Dollfus, A.: 1961, in G. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst (eds.), Planets and Satellites, p. 567, Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fanale, F. P., Johnson, T. V., and Matson, D. L.: 1974, in Proceedings of I.A.U. Colloquim # 28, Ithaca, N.Y.Google Scholar
  17. Fink, U., Larson, H. P., and Dekkers, N. H.: 1973, Astrophys. J. 179, L155.Google Scholar
  18. Gehrels, T., Coffeen, D., Tomasko, M., Doose, L., Swindell, W., Castillo, N., Kendall, J., and Baker, L.: 1974, Science 10, 318.Google Scholar
  19. Gillett, F. C., Low, F. J., and Stein, W. A.: 1973, Astrophys. J. Lett. 184, 93.Google Scholar
  20. Giver, L. P.: 1976, Bulletin of the Astronomical Society, to be published.Google Scholar
  21. Golitsyn, G. S.: 1970, Icarus 13, 1.Google Scholar
  22. Hide, R.: 1961, Nature 190, 885.Google Scholar
  23. Hunten, D.: 1974, Icarus 22, 111.Google Scholar
  24. Ingersoll, A. P.: 1973, Science 182, 1346.Google Scholar
  25. Ingersoll, A. P., Munch, G., Neugebauer, G., and Orton, G. S.: 1977, Icarus, to be published.Google Scholar
  26. Kiefler, H. H. and Smythe, W. D.: 1974, Icarus 21, 506.Google Scholar
  27. Kuiper, G. P.: 1972, Comm. Lunar Planet. Lab. 173, 249.Google Scholar
  28. Kuiper, G. P.: 1944, Astrophys. J. 100, 378.Google Scholar
  29. Larson, H. P., Fink, U., Treffers, R., and Gautier, T. N.: 1975, Astrophys. J. 197, L137.Google Scholar
  30. Lebofsky, L. A.: 1975, Icarus 25, 205.Google Scholar
  31. Lebovsky, L. A., Johnson, T. V., and McCord, T. B.: 1970, Icarus 13, 226.Google Scholar
  32. Lewis, J. S.: 1971, Icarus 15, 174.Google Scholar
  33. Lewis, J. S.: 1974, in D. M. Hunten (ed), The Atmosphere of Titan, NASA Special Publication SP-340.Google Scholar
  34. Matson, D. L., Johnson, T. V., and Fanale, F. P.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 192, L43.Google Scholar
  35. Maxworthy, T.: 1973, Planet. Space Sci. 21, 623.Google Scholar
  36. Maxworthy, T. and Redekopp, L. G.: 1976, Nature 260, 509.Google Scholar
  37. McDonough, T. R. and Brice, N. M.: 1973, Nature 243, 513.Google Scholar
  38. Murray, B., Belton, M., Danielson, G., Davies, M., Gault, G., Hopke, B., O'Leary, B., Strom, R., Suomi, V., and Trask, N.: 1974, Science 183, 1307.Google Scholar
  39. Newburn, R. L. and Gulkis, S.: 1973, Space Sci. Rev. 14, 179.Google Scholar
  40. Peek, B. M.: 1958, The Planet Jupiter, Faber and Faber, London.Google Scholar
  41. Pilcher, C. B., Ridgway, S. T., and McCord, T. B.: 1972, Science 178, 1087.Google Scholar
  42. Pollack, J. B.: 1973, Icarus 19, 43.Google Scholar
  43. Pollack, J. B. and Reynolds, R. T.: 1974, Icarus 21, 248.Google Scholar
  44. Prinn. R. and Lewis, J. S.: 1975, Science 190, 276.Google Scholar
  45. Reese, E. J.: 1971, Icarus 15, 466.Google Scholar
  46. Reese, E. and Smith, B. A.: 1968, Icarus 9, 474.Google Scholar
  47. Sagan, C.: 1973, Icarus 18, 649.Google Scholar
  48. Sagan, C. and Salpeter, E. E.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Supplement of Volume 76, to be published.Google Scholar
  49. Sinton, W. M.: 1976, Bulletin of the Astronomical Society. Google Scholar
  50. Smith, B. A. and Hunt, G. E.: 1976, In T. Gehrels (ed), Jupiter, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  51. Stone, P. H.: 1976, In T. Gehrels (ed), Jupiter, Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  52. Swindell, W. and Doose, L. R.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 3634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Trafton, L.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 175, 285.Google Scholar
  54. Trafton, L., Parkinson, T., and Macy, W., Jr.: 1974, Astrophys. J. 190, L85.Google Scholar
  55. Veverka, J.: 1973, Icarus 18, 657.Google Scholar
  56. Yung, Y. L. and McElroy, M. B.: 1975, Paper presented at 6th Annual Meeting of the AAS Division of Planetary Sciences, Columbia, Md., 17–21 February 1975.Google Scholar
  57. Zellner, B.: 1973, Icarus 18, 661.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Smith
    • 1
  • G. A. Briggs
    • 2
  • G. E. Danielson
    • 2
  • A. F. CookII
    • 3
  • M. E. Davies
    • 4
  • G. E. Hunt
    • 5
  • H. Masursky
    • 6
  • L. A. Soderblom
    • 6
  • T. C. Owen
    • 7
  • C. Sagan
    • 8
  • V. E. Suomi
    • 9
  1. 1.University of ArizonaUSA
  2. 2.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryUSA
  3. 3.Center for Astrophysics, Harvard College Observatory and Smithsonian Astrophysical ObservatoryUSA
  4. 4.Rand CorporationUSA
  5. 5.Meteorological OfficeBracknellUK
  6. 6.U.S. Geological SurveyUSA
  7. 7.State University of New YorkStonybrookUSA
  8. 8.Cornell UniversityUSA
  9. 9.University of WisconsinUSA

Personalised recommendations