Skip to main content

In vitro skin absorption of 14C-cyanuric acid in a simulated swimming pool

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Allen LM, Briggle TV, Pfaffenberger CD (1982) Absorption and excretion of cyanuric acid in long-distance swimmers. Drug Metabol Rev 13:499–516.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bronaugh RL, Stewart RF, Simon M (1986) Methods for in vitro percutaneous absorption studies. VII: Use of excised human skin. J Pharm Sci 75:1094–1097.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Canelli E (1974) Chemical, bacteriological, and toxicological properties of cyanuric acid and chlorinated isocyanurates as applied to swimming pool disinfection. Amer J Public Hlth 64:155–162.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Datta PR (1979) Human exposure analysis of swimmers to chlorinated cyanuric acid via oral routes. Hazard Evaluation Division Report prepared for Special Pesticide Review Division, p1–5.

  5. Downes CJ, Mitchell JW, Viotto ES, Eggers NJ (1984) Determination of cyanuric acid levels in swimming pool waters by u.v. absorbance, HPLC and melamine cyanurate precipitation. Water Res 18:277–280.

    Google Scholar 

  6. EPA (1988) Guidance for the reregistration of pesticide products containing chlorinated isocyanurates as the active ingredient. Document No. 540/RS-88-077.

  7. Guy RH, Maibach HI (1984) Correction factors for determining body exposure from forearm percutaneous absorption data. J Appl Toxicol 4:26–28.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Inokuchi N., Sawamura R., Hasegawa A., Urakubo G. (1978) Distribution, percutaneous absorption and excretion of isocyanuric acid. Eisei Kagaku, 24:1–49.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Moody RP, Martineau P (1990) An automated in vitro dermal absorption procedure: I. Permeation of 14C-labelled N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide through human skin and effects of short-wave ultraviolet radiation on permeation. Toxic in Vitro 4:193–199.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Moody RP, Ritter L. (1992) An automated in vitro dermal absorption procedure: II. Comparative in vivo and in vitro dermal absorption of the herbicide fenoxapropethyl (HOE 33171) in rats. Toxic in Vitro 6:53–59.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Wester RC, Mobayen M, Maibach HI (1987) In vivo and in vitro absorption and binding to powdered stratum corneum as methods to evaluate skin absorption of environmental chemical contaminants from ground and surface water. J Toxicol Environ Hlth 21:367–374

    Google Scholar 

  12. Wojtowicz JA, Faust JP, Brigano FA (1984) Treatment of swimming pools, spas and hot tubs. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd edition. 24:427–441

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. P. Moody.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Moody, R.P., Nadeau, B., MacDonald, S. et al. In vitro skin absorption of 14C-cyanuric acid in a simulated swimming pool. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 50, 12–18 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00196534

Download citation

Keywords

  • Waste Water
  • Water Management
  • Water Pollution
  • Swimming Pool
  • Skin Absorption