Skip to main content

Effect of pH and time on the acute toxicity of copper sulfate to the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Carter, JW, Cameron, IL (1973) Toxicity bioassay of heavy metals in water using Tetrahymena pyriformis. Wat. Res. 7:951–961

    Google Scholar 

  2. Chubatsu LS, Meneghini R (1993) Metallothionein protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochem. J. 291:193–198

    Google Scholar 

  3. Dunlop S, Chapman G (1981) Detoxication of zinc and cadmium by the freshwater protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. Environ. Res. 24:264–274

    Google Scholar 

  4. Goyer RA (1986) Toxic effect of metals. In: Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, Doull J (eds) Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York pp 582–635

    Google Scholar 

  5. Lawrence SG, Holoda MH, Hamilton RD (1989) Effects of cadmium on a microbial food chain Chlamydomonas reinhardii and Tetrahymena vorax. Sci.Tot. Environ. 87/88:381–395

    Google Scholar 

  6. Madoni P, Esteban G, Gorbi G (1992) Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc to ciliates from activated sludge plants. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 49:900–905

    Google Scholar 

  7. Nanney DL (1986) Ciliates as experimental organisms. In: Gall JG (ed) The molecular Biology of Ciliated Protozoa. Academic Press, Orlando pp 1–26

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ruthven JA, Cairns Jr. J (1973) Response of fresh-water protozoan artificial communities to metals. J. Protoz. 20:127–135

    Google Scholar 

  9. Slabbert JL, Morgan WSG (1982) A bioassay technique using Tetrahymena pyriformis for the rapid assessment of toxicants in water. Wat. Res. 16:517–523

    Google Scholar 

  10. Sprague, JB (1985) Factors that modify toxicity. In: Rand GM, Petrocelli SR (eds) Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology. Hemisphere, New York pp 124–163

    Google Scholar 

  11. Stiff MJ (1971) The chemical states of copper in polluted freshwater and a scheme to differentiate them. Wat. Res. 5:585–599

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. Schlenk.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Schlenk, D., Moore, C.T. Effect of pH and time on the acute toxicity of copper sulfate to the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 53, 800–804 (1994).

Download citation


  • Copper
  • Sulfate
  • Toxicity
  • Waste Water
  • Water Management