Skip to main content

Toxicity to aquatic organisms of pond water contaminated by fenitrothion during forest spraying

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Department of Environment (1979) Laboratory manual. Department of Environment, Environmental Protection, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Resource Services, Government of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia.

  2. Doe KG, Ernst WR, Parker WR, Julien GRJ, Henni gar PA (1988) Influence of pH on the acute lethality of fenitrothion, 2,4-D, and aminocarb, and some pH-altered sublethal effects of aminocarb on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 45:287–293.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Environmental Protection (1990a) Biological Test Method: Acute Lethality Test Using Rainbow Trout. Reference Method EPS 1/RM/9. ISBN 0–662–18074–7. Environmental Protection, Ottawa.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Environmental Protection (1990b) Biological Test Method: Reference Method for Determining Acute Lethality of Effluents to Daphnia magna. Reference Method EPS 1/RM/14. Environmental Protection, Ottawa.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Ernst WR, Doe KG (1989) A comparison of the aquatic toxicity of fenitrothion flowable and fenitrothion liquid technical formulations. Water Poll Res J Canada 24(4):553–568.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ernst WR, Julien GRJ, Hennigar PA (1991) Contamination of ponds by fenitrothion during forest spraying. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 46:815–821.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Fairchild, WL (1990) Perturbation of the aquatic invertebrate community of bog ponds by the insecticide fenitrothion. Ph.D. Thesis, University of New Brunswick.

  8. Fairchild, WL (1993) Environmental effects of forest spraying of fenitrothion on aquatic invertebrates in forest ponds. Conservation and Protection, Atlantic Region Technical Report Series No. 93–0X, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, ISSN 1192–3377.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Fairchild WL, Eidt D (1993) Perturbation of the aquatic invertebrate community of acidic bog ponds by the insecticide fenitrothion. Arch Environ Contain Toxicol 25(2): 170–183.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Fairchild WL, Ernst WR, Mallet VM (1989) Fenitrothion effects on aquatic organisms. In: Ernst WR, Pearce PA, Pollock TA (eds) Environmental effects of fenitrothion use in forestry. Environment Canada Report #EN40-370/1989c, p 166

  11. Klaverkamp, JF, M.Dvangsawasdi, W.A.MacDonald and H.S.Majewski (1977) An evaluation of fenitrothion toxicity in four life stages of rainbow trout, (Salmo qairdneri). In: Meyer FL, Hamelink JL (eds) Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Evaluation, ASTM STP 634, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  12. Maguire RJ (1991) Kinetics of pesticide volatilization from the surface of water. J Agri Fd Chem 39:1674–1678

    Google Scholar 

  13. Maguire RJ, Hale EJ (1980) Fenitrothion sprayed on a pond: Kinetics of its distribution and transformation in water and sediment. J Agri Fd Chem 28:372–378

    Google Scholar 

  14. National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) (1977). Fenitrothion: The long-term effects of its use in the forest ecosystem. Roberts JR, Greenhalgh R, Marshall WK (eds), NRCC No. 16073. Ottawa.

  15. Pierce WL, Ernst WR (1988) Assessment of the variability of fenitrothion deposits on conifer foliage from a forestry spray program. Environmental Protection, Environment Canada, Surveillance Report EPS-5-AR-88-9.

  16. Sanders HO, Findley MT, Hunn JB (1983) Acute toxicity of 6 forest insecticides to 3 aquatic invertebrates and 4 fishes. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Technical Paper No 110:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  17. Sundarum KMS (1990) Foliar and ground deposits of fenitrothion following aerial application over a plantation forest. J Environ Sci Health B 25:643–663.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Symons PEK (1977) Dispersal and toxicology of the insecticide fenitrothion. Residue Rev 38:1–36

    Google Scholar 

  19. Stephan CE (1977) Methods for calculating an LC50. In: Mayer FL, Hamelink JL (eds) Aquatic toxicology and hazard evaluation, ASTM STP 634. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Wells PG, Matheson RA, Lord DA, Doe KG (1979) Environmental monitoring of the 1978 spruce budworm spray program in New Brunswick Canada — field sampling and aquatic toxicity studies with fish. Environment Canada Surviel lance Report EPS-5-AR-79-1, p 14

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ernst, W., Wade, S., Hennigar, P. et al. Toxicity to aquatic organisms of pond water contaminated by fenitrothion during forest spraying. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 52, 612–618 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00194151

Download citation

Keywords

  • Toxicity
  • Waste Water
  • Water Management
  • Water Pollution
  • Aquatic Organism