Visual fields in woodcocks Scolopax rusticola (Scolopacidae; Charadriiformes)
- 170 Downloads
Eye movements of significant amplitude are absent.
The retinal binocular field is long and narrow. It extends through 190° in the median sagittal plane. When the head adopts a normal posture (bill at an angle of 40° below the horizontal) the binocular field stretches from 25° above the bill to 5° above the horizontal behind the head. Thus, woodcocks have comprehensive visual coverage of the hemisphere above them but the bill falls outside the visual field. Maximum binocular field width equals 12° and occurs perpendicular to the line of the bill. To the rear of the head binocular field width is less than 5° except in an area 40° above the horizontal where it increases to 7°.
Monocular retinal fields in the horizontal plane are 182° wide. There is no blind sector at the margin of the optical fields.
The general structure of woodcock skulls facilitates panoramic vision in a horizontal plane.
Interspecific comparisons are consistent with the hypothesis that visual field topography among birds is closely associated with the role of vision in foraging. Comprehensive visual coverage of the celestial hemisphere probably occurs only in species, such as woodcocks, which rely primarily upon senses other than vision to guide foraging.
Key wordsAves Vision Scolopax Visual field Binocular vision
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Berkhoudt H (1980) The morphology and distribution of cutaneous mechanoreceptors (Herbst and Grandry corpuscles) in bill and tongue of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L). Netherl J Zool 30:1–34Google Scholar
- Burton PJK (1974) Feeding and the feeding apparatus in waders. British Museum, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Cramp S, Simmons KEL (eds) (1983) The birds of the Western Palaearctic, Vol. 3. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, pp 444–457Google Scholar
- Gerritsen AFC, van Heezik YM, Swennen C (1983) Chemoreception in two further Calidris species (C. maritima and C. canutus) with a comparison of the relative importance of chemoreception during foraging in Calidris species. Netherl J Zool 33:485–496Google Scholar
- Gottschaldt K-M (1985) Structure and function of avian somatosensory receptors. In: King AS, McLelland J (eds) Form and function in birds, vol 3. Academic Press, New York London, pp 375–461Google Scholar
- Hancock J, Kushlan J (1984) The Herons Handbook. Croom Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Hayman P, Marchant J, Prater AJ (1986) Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Croom Helm, BeckenhamGoogle Scholar
- Hughes A (1977) The topography of vision in mammals of contrasting life style: comparative optics and retinal organisation. In: Crescitelli F (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol VII/5. Springer, Heidelberg Berlin New York, pp 613–756Google Scholar
- Katzir G, Intrator N (1987) Striking of underwater prey by a reef heron, Egretta gularis schistacea. J Comp Physiol A 160:517–523Google Scholar
- King AS, McLelland J (1984) Birds — their structure and function. Baillière Tindall, EastbourneGoogle Scholar
- Kühne R, Lewis B (1985) External and middle ears. In: King AS, McLelland J (eds) Form and function in birds, vol 3. Academic Press, New York London, pp 227–271Google Scholar
- Lotem A, Schechtman E, Katzir G (1991) Capture of submerged prey by little egrets, Egretta garzetta garzetta: strike depth, strike angle and the problem of light refraction. Anim Behav 42:341–346Google Scholar
- McFadden SA, Reymond L (1985) A further look at the binocular visual field of the pigeon (Columba livia). Vision Res 25:1741–1746Google Scholar
- Martin GR (1984) The visual fields of the tawny owl (Strix aluco). Vision Res 24:1739–1751Google Scholar
- Martin GR (1986a) The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics. J Comp Physiol A 159:545–557Google Scholar
- Martin GR (1986b) Total panoramic vision in the mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos. Vision Res 26:1301–1305Google Scholar
- Martin GR (1986c) Sensory capacities and the nocturnal habit in owls. Ibis 128:266–277Google Scholar
- Martin GR (1990) Birds by night. Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Martin GR (1994) Form and function in the optical structure of bird eyes. In: Green P, Davies M (eds) Perception and motor control in birds. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (in press)Google Scholar
- Martin GR, Brooke M (1991) The eye of a procellariiform seabird, the Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus: visual fields and optical structure. Brain Behav Evol 37:65–78Google Scholar
- Martin GR, Katzir G (1994) Visual fields and eye movements in herons (Ardeidae), Brain Behav Evol (in press)Google Scholar
- Martin GR, Young SR (1983) The retinal binocular field of the pigeon (Columba livia): English racing homer. Vision Res 23:911–915Google Scholar
- Martin GR, Young SR (1984) The eye of the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti: visual fields and schematic optics. Proc R Soc Lond B 223:197–222Google Scholar
- Sheldon WG (1967) The book of the American woodcock. University of Massachusetts Press, AmherstGoogle Scholar
- Steinbach MJ, Money KE (1973) Eye movements of the owl. Vision Res 13:889–891Google Scholar
- Steinbach MJ, Angus RG, Money KE (1974) Torsional eye movements of the owl. Vision Res 14:745–746Google Scholar
- Tansley K (1965) Vision in vertebrates. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Van Heezik YM, Gerritsen AEC, Swennen C (1983) The influence of chemoreception on the foraging behaviour of two species of sandpiper, Calidris alba and Calidris alpina. Netherl J Sea Res 17:47–56Google Scholar
- Voisin C (1991) The herons of Europe. Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Walls GL (1942) The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, MichiganGoogle Scholar
- Welty JC, Baptista L (1988) The life of birds. 4th edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Zweers GA, Wouterlodd FG (1973) Functional anatomy of the feeding apparatus of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Proc 3rd Eur Anat Congr Manchester: 88–89Google Scholar