Skip to main content

Use of two halogenated biphenyls as indicators of non-target exposure during rodenticide treatments

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Anon (1981) Pest Infestation Control Laboratory report 1977–79, HMSO, London p154–155

  2. Buckle AP, Odam EM, Richards CGJ (1987) Chemical bait markers for the study of bait uptake by Norway rats. In: Richards CGJ and Ku TY (ed) Control of Mammal Pests, Taylor and Francis, London 1987, pp 199–213

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bull JO (1976) Laboratory and field investigations with difenacoum, a promising new rodenticide. Proc 7th Vert Pest Conf pp 72–84

  4. Cox PR, Smith RH (1990) Rodenticide ecotoxicology: assessing non-target population effects. Funct Ecol 4:315–320

    Google Scholar 

  5. Crabtree DG, Robison WH (1952) Warfarin and its effect on some wildlife species. In: Trans. 7th North American Wildlife Conference, Wildlife Management Institute, Washington DC, pp 167–173

    Google Scholar 

  6. Fellows DP, Pank LF, Engeman RM (1988) Hazards to birds from zinc phosphide rat bait in a macadamia orchard. Wildl Soc Bull 16:411–416

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gemmeke H (1990) Untersuchungen zur Abschatzung des Gefafrdungspotentials von Rodentiziden fur Waldkauze (Strix aluco). Nachrichtenbl Deut Pflanzenschutzd 42:153–156

    Google Scholar 

  8. Gray A, Eadsforth CV, Dutton AJ, Vaughan JA (1992) Toxicity of second generation rodenticides to barn owls. BCPC Conference — Pests and Diseases, pp 781–786

  9. Greig-Smith PW, Fletcher MR, Hunter K, Quick MP, Ruthven AD, Shaw IC (1990) Pesticide poisoning of animals 1988: investigations of suspected incidents in Great Britain MAFF Publications, London

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hadler MR, Buckle AP (1992) Forty five years of anticoagulant rodenticides — past, present, and future trends. Proc. 15th Vertebrate Pest Conf pp 149–155

  11. Hardy AR, Fletcher MR, Stanley PI (1986) Pesticides and wildlife: twenty years of vertebrate wildlife incident investigations by MAFF. State Vet J 40:182–192

    Google Scholar 

  12. Harradine JP (1976) Anticoagulant rodenticides and non-target wildlife: an ecological evaluation of permanent baiting in rural rat control. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh

  13. Harrison EG, Porter AJ, Forbes S. (1988) Development of methods to assess the hazards of a rodenticide to non-target vertebrates. ln: Greaves MP, Smith BD, Greig-Smith PW,(ed) BCPC Monograph 40, Proceedingsof the BCPC Symposium Field methods for the study of environmental effects of pesticides, pp 89–96

  14. Hegdal PL, Blaskiewicz RW (1984) Evaluation of the potential hazard to barn owls of Talon (brodifacoum bait) used to control rats and house mice. Environ Toxicol Chem 3:167–179

    Google Scholar 

  15. Lund M (1981) Hens, eggs and anticoagulants. Intnl Pest Control 23:126–128

    Google Scholar 

  16. Mizutani T, Hidaka K, Ohe T, Matsumoto, M Yamamoto K, Tajima, K (1980) Comparative study on accumulation and elimination of hexachlorobiphenyls and decachlorobiphenyl in mice. Bull Environm Contam toxicol 25:181–187

    Google Scholar 

  17. Newton I, Wylie I, Freestone P (1990) Rodenticides in British barn owls. Environ Pollution 68:101–117

    Google Scholar 

  18. Papworth DS (1958) A review of the dangers of warfarin poisoning to animals other than rodents. Roy Socy Hlth J 78:52–60

    Google Scholar 

  19. Prier RF, Derse PM (1962) Evaluation of the hazard from secondary poisoning by warfarin-poisoned rodents. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 140:351–354

    Google Scholar 

  20. Quy RJ Cowan DP, Haynes P, Inglis IR, Swinney T. (1992) The influence of stored food on the effectiveness of farm rat control. Brighton Crop Prot Conf pp 291–300

  21. Rowe FP, Plant CJ, Bradfield A (1981) Trials of the anticoagulant rodenticides bromadiolone and difenacoum against the housemouse (Mus musculus L). J Hyg (Camb) 87:171–177

    Google Scholar 

  22. Savarie PJ, Johns BE, Gaddis SE (1992) A review of chemical and particle marking agents used for studying vertebrate pests. Proc 15th Vertebrate Pest Conf pp 252–257

  23. Townsend MG, Fletcher MR, Odam EM, Stanley PI (1981) An assessment of the secondary poisoning hazard of warfarin to tawny owls. J Wildl Manage 45:242–248

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. G. Townsend.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Townsend, M.G., Entwisle, P. & Hart, A.D.M. Use of two halogenated biphenyls as indicators of non-target exposure during rodenticide treatments. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 54, 526–533 (1995).

Download citation


  • Waste Water
  • Water Management
  • Water Pollution
  • Biphenyl