Optically pure d-lactic acid was produced by fermentation of lactose with Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lb-12, and purified by crystallisation as magnesium d-lactate followed by extraction with butanol. The yield of d-lactate and contaminations with nitrogen and phosphorus were mapped during the purification procedure. The overall yield of d-lactic acid was 72% and the purity was more than 99%. Contaminations in the final d-lactic acid with nitrogen, phosphorus and l-lactic acid were only 0.032% w/w, 0.018% w/w and 0.04% w/w respectively.
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Benthin, S., Villadsen, J. Production of optically pure d-lactate by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and purification by crystallisation and liquid/liquid extraction. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42, 826–829 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00191176