Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 98–111 | Cite as

An overview of the geology of the Transvaal Sequence and Bushveld Complex, South Africa

  • P. G. Eriksson
  • P. J. Hattingh
  • W. Altermann


The Late Archaean-Early Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence is preserved within the Transvaal, Kanye and Griqualand West basins, with the 2050 Ma Bushveld Complex intrusive into the upper portion of the succession within the Transvaal basin. Both Transvaal and Bushveld rocks are extensively mineralized, the former containing large deposits of iron, manganese, asbestos, andalusite, gold, fluorine, lead, zinc and tin ores, and the latter some of the World's major occurrences of PGE, chromium and vanadium ores. Transvaal sedimentation began with thin, predominantly clastic sedimentary rocks (Black Reef-Vryburg Formations) which grade up into a thick package of carbonate rocks and BIF (Chuniespoort-Ghaap-Taupone Groups). These lithologies reflect a carbonate-BIF platform sequence which covered much of the Kaapvaal craton, in reaction to thermal subsidence above Ventersdorp-aged rift-related fault systems. An erosional hiatus was followed by deposition of the clastic sedimentary rocks and volcanics of the Pretoria-Postmasburg-Segwagwa Groups within the three basins, under largely closed-basin conditions. An uppermost predominantly volcanic succession (Rooiberg Group-Loskop Formation) is restricted to the Transvaal basin. A common continental rift setting is thought to have controlled Pretoria Group sedimentation, Rooiberg volcanism and the intrusion of the mafic rocks of the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex. The dipping sheets of the Rustenburg magmas cut across the upper Pretoria Group stratigraphy and lifted up the Rooiberg lithologies to form the roof to the complex. Subsequent granitic rocks of the Lebowa and Rashoop Suites of the Bushveld Complex intruded both upper Rustenburg rocks and the Rooiberg felsites.


Asbestos Continental Rift Bushveld Complex Kaapvaal Craton Thermal Subsidence 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Eriksson
    • 1
  • P. J. Hattingh
    • 1
  • W. Altermann
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Institut für Allgemeine und Angewandte Geologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenMünchenGermany

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