Immediate and long range effects of the uptake of increased amounts of arachidonic acid

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



arachidonic acid (20:4, n-6)


lecithin cholesteryl acyl transferase


high density lipoproteins




low density lipoproteins


liquid formula diets


very low density lipoproteins


intermediate density lipoproteins


  1. 1.

    Abeywardena MY, McLennan PL, Charnock JS (1991) Differential effects of dietary fish oil on myocardial prostaglandin I2 and thromboxane A2 production. Am Physiol Soc 91:H379-H385.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Adam O, Wolfram G (1984) Effect of different linoleic acid intakes on prostaglandin biosynthese and kidney function in man. Am J Clin Nutr 40:763–770.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Adam O (1990) Cardiovascular effects of n-6 fatty acids. Klin Wochenschr 68 [Suppl XX]:16–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Adam O, Zöllner N (1992) Arachidonic and linoleic acids in the diet influence arachidonic acid levels in plasma and platelet lipids, and eicosanoid biosynthesis in man. Am J Clin Nutr (submitted).

  5. 5.

    Ahrens EH Jr, Dole VP, Blankenhorn DH (1954) The use of orally fed liquid formulas in metabolic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2:336–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bailey JM (1991) New mechanisms for effects of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids (review). Biofactors 3:97–102.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Bittiner SB, Tucker WFG, Cartwright I, Bleehen SS (1988) A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in psoriasis. Lancet I:378–380.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Bjorneboe A, Soyland E, Bjorneboe GE, Rajka G, Drevon GA (1987) Effect of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 117:463–469.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Blackwell GJ, Flower RJ (1983) Inhibition of phospholipase. Br Med Bull 39:260–264.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Breckenridge WC, Yeung SKF, Kuksis A (1976) Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols by rat intestinal mucosa in vivo. Can J Biochem 54:145–152.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Brenner RR, Peluffo RC (1966) Regulation of unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis. The effects of unsaturated fatty acids of 18 carbon atoms on microsomal desaturation of linoleic to gamma-linolenic acid. Biochem Biophys Acta 176:471–479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Bronsgeest-Schoute HC, Gent CM van, Luten JB, Ruiter A (1981) The effects of various intakes of w-3 fatty acids on the blood lipid composition in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 34:1752–1757.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Carroll KK (1991) Dietary fat and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 53:1064S–1067S.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Crawford CG, Wells MA (1979) Fatty acid and molecular species composition of rat brain phosphatidylcholine and ethanolamine from birth to weaning. Lipids 14:757–762.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Crawford MA (1987) The requirement of long-chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids for the brain. In: Lands WEM (ed) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids. Am Oil Chem Soc, Champaign, pp 270–295.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Crombie LK, McLoone P, Smith WCS, Thomason M, Tunstall Pedoe H (1987) International differences in coronary heart disease mortality and consumption of fish and other food stuffs. Eur Heart J 8:560–563.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Damas J (1978) Action hypotensive de l'acide arachidonique, substance à action lente de l'anaphylaxie (SRS-A) et thromboxane A2, chez le rat. C R Soc Biol (Paris) 172:1017–1028.

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Darnell J, Lodish HF, Baltimore D (1986) Assembly of organells. In: Freeman WH (ed) Molecular Cell Biology. Oxford Press, pp 911–983.

  19. 19.

    Davi G, Catalombo J, Averna M, Notarbartolo A, Strano A, Ciabattoni G, Patrono C (1990) Thromboxane biosynthesis and platelet function in type II diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 322:1769–1774.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Davi G, Notarbartolo A, Catalano J, Averna M, Barbagallo C, Ciabattoni G, Patrono C (1990) Thromboxane biosynthesis in type II a hypercholesterolemia. Clin Res 38:251A.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    DGE (1988) Erndhrungsbericht 1988. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Frankfurt am Main.

  22. 22.

    Dyerberg J, Bjerregaard P (1987) Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in Greenland. In: WEM Lands (ed) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids. Am Oil Chem Soc, Champaign, pp 2–8.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Eisenberg S (1984) High density lipoprotein metabolism. J Lipid Res 25:1017–1058.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Fitzgerald DJ, Roy L, Catella F, Fitzgerald GA (1986) Platelet activation in unstable coronary disease. N Engl J Med 315:983–989.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Frölich TC, Wilson TW, Sweetman BJ, Smigel M, Nies AS, Carr K, Watson JT, Oatis JA (1975) Urinary prostaglandins. Identification and origin. J Clin Invest 55:763–770.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Furlow TW, Brass NH (1974) Stroke in rats produced by carotid injection of sodium arachidonate. Science 187:658–660.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Glomset JA (1979) Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase: an exercise in comparative biology. Prog Biochem Pharmacol 15:41–66.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Gryglewski RJ, Dembinska-Kiec A, Zmuda A, Gryglewska T (1978) Prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 biosynthesis capacities of heart, arteries and platelets at various stages of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 15:385–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Habenicht AJJ, Salbach P, Goerig M, Zeh W, Janssen-Timmen U, Blattner C, King WC, Glomset JA (1990) The LDL receptor pathway delivers arachidonic acid for eicosanoid formation in cells stimulated by platelet derived growth factor. Nature 345:634–636.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Hajarine M, Lagarde M (1986) Studies on polyenoic acid incorporation into human platelet lipid stores: interactions with linoleic and arachidonic acids. Biochem Biophys Acta 877:299–304.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Hong SL (1988) The release of arachidonic acid from cellular lipids. Prog Allergy 44:99–139.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Isis-2 (1988) Randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both or neither among 17187 cases of suspected myocardial infarction. Lancet II:349–360.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Jeffcoat R (1979) The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and its control in mammalian liver. Essays Biochem 15:1–36.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Jonat C, Rahmsdorf HJ, Park KK, Cato ACB, Gebel S, Ponta H, Herrlich P (1990) Anti-tumor promotion and anti-inflammation —down-modulation of AP-1 (FOS-JUN) activity by glucocorticoid hormone. Cell 62:1189–1204.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Karmali RA (1987) Omega-3 fatty acids and cancer: a review. In: Lands WEM (ed) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids. Am Oil Chem Soc, Champaign, pp 222–232.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Kingsbury KJ, Morgan DM, Aylott C, Emmerson R (1961) Effects of ethyl-arachidonate, cod-liver oil, and corn oil on the plasma cholesterol level. Lancet I:739–741.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Kremer JM, Jubiz W, Michalek A, Ryners RI, Batholomew LE, Bigaouette J, Timchalk M, Beeler D, Lininger L (1987) Fish-oil fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, controlled cross-over study. Ann Int Med. 106:497–503.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Kulmacz RJ, Sivarajan M, Lands WE (1986) Measurements of the incorporation of orally administered arachidonic acid into tissue lipids. Lipids 21:21–25.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Leffler CW, Mirro R, Armstead WM, Busija DN, Thelin O (1990) Prostanoid synthesis and vascular responses to exogenous arachidonic acid following cerebral ischemia in piglets. Prostaglandins 40:241–249.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Morley N, Kuksis A (1972) Postitional specificity of lipoprotein lipase. J Biol Chem 247:6389–6393.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Morinelli TA, Naka M, Masuda A, Oatis JE, Okwu AK, Mais DE, Saussy DL, Halushka PV (1990) Characterization of the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptors of various tissues using a new radioiodinated thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 mimetic. In: Samuelsson B, Ramwell PW, Paoletti R, Folco G, Granstrom E (eds) Advances in prostaglandin, thromboxane, and leukotriene research. Raven Press, New York, pp 331–337.

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Mosconi C, Colli S, Tremoli E, Galli C (1988) Phosphatidylinositol (PI) and PI-associated arachidonate are elevated in platelet total membranes from type II hypercholesterolemic subjects. Atherosclerosis 72:129–134.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Needleman SW, Spector AA, Hoak JC (1982) Enhancement of human platelet phospholipid with linoleic acid diminishes thromboxane release. Prostaglandins 24:607–622.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Neufeld EJ, Wilson DB, Sprecher H, Majerius PW (1983) High affinity esterification of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids by platelets. J Clin Invest 72:214–220.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Nilson A, Landin B (1988) Metabolism of chylomicron arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in the rat. Biochem Biophys Acta 959:288–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Picado C, Casillo JA, Pujades M, Ordinas A, Coronas A, Augusti-Vidal A (1988) Effect of a fish-oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study. Thorax 43:93–97.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Preclik G, Stange EF, Arnold D, Ditschuneit H (1991) In vitro effects of arachidonic acid on the prostaglandin synthesizing system in gastric mucosa. Prostaglandins 41:359–373.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Rosenthal MD, Whitehurst MC (1983) Fatty acid acyl delta-6-desaturation activity of cultured human endothelial cells, modulation by fetal bovine serum. Biochem Biophys Acta 750:490–496.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Schettler G (1977) Atherosclerosis, the main problem of the industrialized societies. In: Schettler G, Gotto Y, Hata Y, Klose G (eds) Atherosclerosis IV. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 21–38.

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Schmitz G, Assmann G, Melnik B (1981) The role of lecithin: cholesterol acytltransferase in HDL3/HDL2 conversion. Clin Chem Acta 119:225–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Schrör K (1990) Platelets reactivity and arachidonic acid metabolism in type II hyperlipoproteinemia and its modification by cholesterol lowering agents. Eicosanoids 3:67–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Seibert K, Masferrer JL, Fu JY, Honda A, Raz A, Needleman P (1991) The biochemical and pharmacological manipulation of cellular cyclooxygenase (COX) activity (review). Adv Prostaglandin Res 21:45–51.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Seyberth HJ, Oelz O, Kennedy T, Sweetman BJ, Danon A, Frölich JC, Heimberg M, Oates JA (1975) Increased arachidonate in lipids after administration to man: effects on prostaglandin biosynthesis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 18:519–521.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Sharon P, Stenson WF (1984) Enhanced synthesis of leukotriene B4 by colonic mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 86:453–460.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Silver MJ, Bills TK, Smith JB (1974) Arachidonic acid causes sudden death in rabbits. Science 183:1085.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Simpson HCR, Barker K, Carter RD, Cassels E, Mann JI (1982) Low dietary intake of linoleic acid predisposes to myocardial infarction. Br Med J 285:683–684.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Smedegard G, Hedqvist P, Dahlen SE, Reveñas B, Hammarstöm S, Samuelsson B (1982) Leukotriene C4 affects pulmonary and cardiovascular dynamics in monkey. Nature 295:327–329.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Spector AA, Kaduce TL, Hoak JC, Fry GL (1981) Utilization of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid by cultured human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 68:1003–1011.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Valek J, Hammer J, Kohout M, Grafnetter D, Vondra K, Topinka V (1985) Serum linoleic acid and cardiovascular death in postinfarction middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis 54:111–118.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Vergroesen AJ, Hoor F ten, Hornstra G (1981) Effects of dietary fatty acids on prostaglandin synthesis. In: Beers RF, Bassett EG (eds) Nutritional factors: modulating effects on metabolism. Raven Press, New York, pp 539–549.

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Wood DA, Butler S, MacIntyre C, Riemersma RA, Thomson M, Elfton RA (1987) Linoleic and eicosapentaenoic acids in adipose tissue and platelets and risk of coronary heart disease. Lancet I:177–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Wroblewsky JT, Lazarewicz JW, Wroblewska B, Costa E (1991) Role of arachidonic acid in signal transduction of n-methyl-d-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors. In: Meldrum BS, Moroni F, Simon RP, Woods JH (eds) Excitatory amino acids. Raven Press, New York, pp 231–240.

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Zöllner N, Wolfram G (1968) Cholesterinester im Plasma als Parameter der Linolsäureversorgung des Menschen. Z Ges Exp Med 146:57–64.

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Zöllner N, Adam O, Wolfam G (1979) The influence of linoleic acid intake on the excretion of urinary prostaglandin metabolites in man. Res Exp Med 175:149–153.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Zöllner N, Eberhagen D (1965) Untersuchungen über Stoffwechsel und klinische Bedeutung der mehrfach ungesättigten Fettsäuren. Med Klin 60:1192–1195.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Adam, O. Immediate and long range effects of the uptake of increased amounts of arachidonic acid. Clin Investig 70, 721–727 (1992).

Download citation


  • Internal Medicine
  • Arachidonic Acid
  • Long Range
  • Range Effect