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GeoJournal

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 99–108 | Cite as

An interpretation of the 1883 cataclysmic eruption of Krakatau from geochemical studies on the partial melting of granite

  • Ōba Noboru 
  • Tomita Katsutoshi 
  • Yamamoto Masahiko 
Article

Abstract

Pumice flow from the 1883 Krakatau eruption significantly differs in both mineral and chemical compositions from any other volcanic rocks or ejecta of the Krakatau group, which belong to the tholeiitic series. Lithic fragments of granitic Rock, discovered in the pumice flow, are similar to West Malayan granitic rocks. No other granitic rock occurs throughout the Krakatau group, therefore, we consider that the granitic fragments came from the underlying complex at depths, where they were captured as foreign materials by the magma.

It is possible that sialic crustal materials plunged into depths along a peculiar tectonic structure located at the Sunda Strait, which appears to be a sheared portion caused by deformation of the Sunda arc due to differential movement between the Indo-Australian oceanic plate and the Eurasian continental crust. The crustal materials were partially melted and produced a magma of granitic composition. The magma was mixed with or assimilated by an ascending basaltic magma originating probably from the upper mantle. This resulted in a dacitic magma distinctly dominant in silica, alkalis and volatile components, and the 1883 Krakatau eruption, characterized by the pumice flow of dacitic composition, took place.

Keywords

Volcanic Rock Partial Melting Continental Crust Granitic Rock Oceanic Plate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ōba Noboru 
    • 1
  • Tomita Katsutoshi 
    • 1
  • Yamamoto Masahiko 
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Earth SciencesKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan

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