Advertisement

Microbial Ecology

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 125–143 | Cite as

Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata)

  • G. Douglas Inglis
  • Lynne Sigler
  • Mark S. Goette
Article

Abstract

Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass.

Keywords

Filamentous Fungus Rhodotorula Alimentary Canal Penicillium Chrysogenum Alternaria Alternata 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Barnett JA, Payne RW, Yarrow D (1990) Yeasts, characteristics and identification. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Batra LR (1973) Nematosporaceae (Hemiascomycetidae): taxonomy, pathogenicity, distribution, and vector relationships. (Technical Bulletin 1469) Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Batra LR, Batra SWT, Bohart GE (1973) The mycoflora of domesticated and wild bees (Apoidea). Mycopathol Mycol Appl 49:13–44Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bissett J (1988) Contribution toward a monograph of the genus Ascosphaera. Can J Bot 66:2541–2560Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boman HG, Hultmark D (1987) Cell-free immunity in insects. Annu Rev Microbiol 41:103–126Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carmichael JW (1983) The TAXMAP classification program. Version 5.2. University of Alberta Computing Services, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Claus D, Berkeley RCW (1986) Bacillus. In: Sneath PHA (ed) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 2. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Maryland, pp 1105–1139Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dillon RJ, Charnley AK (1988) Inhibition of Metarhizium anisopliae by the gut bacterial flora of the desert locust: characterisation of antifungal toxins. Can J Microbiol 34:1075–1082Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dillon RJ, Chamley AK (1991) The fate of fungal spores in the insect gut. In: Cole GT, Hoch HC (eds) The fungal spore and disease initiation in plants and animals. Plenum Press, New York, pp 129–156Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gilliam M (1973) Are yeasts present in adult worker honey bees as a consequence of stress. Ann Entomol Soc Am 66:1176Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gilliam M (1978) Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus isolated from selected organs of queen honey bees, Apis mellifera. J Invertebr Pathol 31:389–391Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gilliam M (1979) Microbiology of pollen and bee bread: the yeasts. Apidologie 10:43–53Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gilliam M (1979) Microbiology of pollen and bee bread: the genus Bacillus. Apidologie 10:269–274Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gilliam M, Morton HL (1978) Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus isolated from honey bees, Apis mellifera, fed 2,4-D and antibiotics. Apidologie 9:213–222Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gilliam M, Prest DB (1972) Fungi isolated from the intestinal contents of foraging worker honey bees, Apis mellifera. J Invertebr Pathol 20:101–103Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gilliam M, Prest DB (1987) Microbiology of feces of the larval honey bee, Apis mellifera. J Invertebr Pathol 49:70–75Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gilliam M, Taber S (1991) Diseases, pests, and normal microflora of honeybees, Apis mellifera, from feral colonies. J Invertebr Pathol 58:286–289Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gilliam M, Valentine DK (1976) Bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of foraging worker honey bees, Apis mellifera: the genus Bacillus. J Invertebr Pathol 28:275–276Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gilliam M, Wickerham LJ, Morton HL, Martin RD (1974) Yeasts isolated from honey bees, Apis mellifera, fed 2,4-D and antibiotics. J Invertebr Pathol 24:349–356Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gilliam M, Moffett JO, Kauffeld NM (1983) Examination of floral nectar of citrus, cotton, and Arizona desert plants for microbes. Apidologie 14:299–302Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gilliam M, Buchmann SL, Lorenz BJ (1985) Microbiology of the larval provisions of the stingless bee, Trigona hypogea, an obligate necrophage. Biotropica 17:28–31Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilliam M, Lorenz BJ, Richardson GV (1988) Digestive enzymes and microorganisms in honey bees, Apis mellifera: influence of streptomycin, age, season, and pollen. Microbios 55:95–114Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gilliam M, Prest DB, Lorenz BJ (1989) Microbiology of pollen and bee bread: taxonomy and enzymology of molds. Apidologie 20:53–68Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gilliam M, Buchmann SL, Lorenz BJ, Schmalzel RJ (1990) Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus associated with three species of solitary bees. Apidologie 21:99–105Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gilliam M, Roubik DW, Lorenz BJ (1990) Microorganisms associated with pollen, honey, and brood provisions in the nest of the stingless bee, Melipona fasciata. Apidologie 21:89–97Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goerzen DW (1991) Microflora associated with the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fab) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Apidologie 22:553–561Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goodwin RH (1968) Nonsporeforming bacteria in the armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta, under gnotobiotic conditions. J Invertebr Pathol 11:358–370Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gordon RE, Haynes WC, Pang CH (1973) The genus Bacillus. (Agriculture Handbook 427) Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Greenberg B, Kowalski JA, Klowden MJ (1970) Factors affecting the transmission of Salmonella by flies: natural resistance to colonization and bacterial interference. Infect Immun 2:800–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Heath LAF, Gaze BM (1987) Carbon dioxide activation of spores of the chalkbrood fungus Ascosphaera apis. J Apic Res 26:243–246Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hudson HJ (1968) The ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. N Phytol 67:837–874Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Inglis GD, Goettel MS, Sigler L (1992) Analysis of alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata) provisions pre- and post-sterilization with propylene oxide. Apidologie 23:119–132Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Inglis GD, Goettel MS, Sigler L (1992) Effects of decontamination of eggs and γ-irradiation of provisions on alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata) larvae. J Apic Res 31:15–21Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Inglis GD, Sigler L, Goettel MS (1992) Trichosporonoides megachiliensis, a new hyphomycete associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees, with notes on Trichosporonoides and Moniliella. Mycologia 84:555–570Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Inglis GD, Goettel MS, Sigler L (1993) Influence of microorganisms on alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile, rotundata) larval development and susceptibility to Ascosphaera aggregata. J Invertebr Pathol 61:236–243Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jarosz J (1979) Gut flora of Galleria mellonella suppressing ingested bacteria. J Invertebr Pathol 34:192–198Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kish LP (1980) Spore germination of Ascosphaera spp. associated with the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata. J Invertebr Pathol 36:125–128Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kocur M (1986) Micrococcus. In: Sneath PHA (ed) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 2. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp 1004–1008Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Last FT, Price D (1969) Yeasts associated with living plants and their environs. In: Rose AH, Harrison JS (eds) The yeasts. Academic Press, London, pp 183–218Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Logan NA, Berkeley RCW (1984) Identification of Bacillus strains using the API system. J Gen Microbiol 130:1871–1882Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McManus WR, Youssef NN (1984) Life cycle of the chalk brood fungus, Ascosphaera aggregata, in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, and its associated symptomatology. Mycologia 76:830–842Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pridham TG, Tresner HD (1974) Streptomyces. In: Buchanan RE, Gibbons NE (eds) Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 5th ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp 748–829Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Raynal G (1979) Essai d'appreciation de la mycoflore d'une luzerne saine. Rev Zool Agric Pathol Veg 78:57–67Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rippon JW (1992) Medical mycology, 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders Co., PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sandhu DK, Waraich MK (1985) Yeasts associated with pollinating bees and flower nectar. Microb Ecol 11:51–58Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shirling EB, Gottlieb D (1966) Methods for characterization of Streptomyces species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 16:313–340Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1980) Statistical methods, 7th ed. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, IowaGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vandenberg JD, Stephen WP (1983) Pathogenesis of chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata. Apidologie 14:333–341Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vandenberg JD, Stephen WP (1984) Conditions of pH and oxidation-reduction potential in larvae of Megachile rotundata (Fabricius). J Apic Res 23:177–180Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vandenberg JD, Fichter BL, Stephen WP (1980) Spore load of Ascosphaera species on emerging adults of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata. Appl Environ Microbiol 39:650–655Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    51.Van der Walt JP, Yarrow D (1984) Methods for the isolation, maintenance, classification, and identification of yeasts. In: Kreger-van Rij, NJW (ed) The yeasts, a taxonomic study. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 45–104Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Douglas Inglis
    • 1
  • Lynne Sigler
    • 1
  • Mark S. Goette
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Alberta, Microfungus Collection and Herbarium, Devonian Botanic GardenEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Agriculture Canada Research StationAlbertaCanada

Personalised recommendations