Skip to main content

Long run opportunity-costs of children according to education of the mother in the Netherlands

Abstract

Children claim a large part of the parents' potential resources, particularly their time. Direct time costs arise through the time spent out of the labour force while the children are small, indirect costs are the result of lower investment into human capital. It is demonstrated in this paper that the average opportunity costs of children of lower educated mothers can be higher than those of higher educated mothers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Calhoun CA, Espenshade TJ (1988) Childbearing and Wives. Population Studies 44:41–60

    Google Scholar 

  • CBS (1991) Sociaal-economisch panelonderzoek; inhoud, opzet en organisatie. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Voorburg/Heerlen

    Google Scholar 

  • Cigno AC (1994) Economics of the Family. Clarendon Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Groot W, van Ours J (1993) Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings. Tinbergen discussion paper TI 94–6, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam/Rotterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • Gustafsson SS, Wetzels C, Vlasblom JD, Dex S (1996) Women's labor force transition in connection with childbirth: A panel data comparison between Germany, Sweden and Great-Britain. Journal of Population Economics 9:223–246

    Google Scholar 

  • Gustafsson SS, Stafford F (1994) Three Regimes of Childcare: the United States, the Netherlands and Sweden. In: Blank R (ed) Social Protection versus Economic Flexibility: Is there a tradeoff? NBER and Chicago University Press, 333–363

  • Heckman JJ (1974) Shadow prices, market wages, and labor supply. Econometrica 42:679–694

    Google Scholar 

  • Heckman JJ (1976) The common structure of statistical models of truncation, sample selection and limited dependent variables and a simple estimator for such model. Annals of Economic and Social Measurements 5:475–492

    Google Scholar 

  • Joshi H (1990) The cash alternative costs of childbearing: an approach to estimation using British data. Population Studies 44:41–60

    Google Scholar 

  • Joshi H (1994) The Foregone Earnings of Europe's Mothers. In: Ekert-Jaffé O (ed) Standards of Living and Families: Observation and Analysis. John Libbey, London 101–134

    Google Scholar 

  • MaCurdy T, Green DL, Paarsch H (1990) Assessing Empirical Approaches for Analyzing Taxes and Labor Supply. Journal of Human Resources 25:415–490

    Google Scholar 

  • Mincer J, Ofek H (1982) Interrupted work careers: depreciation and restoration of human capital. Journal of Human Recources 17:3–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Mincer J (1974) Schooling, experience and earnings. National Bureau of Economic Research and Columbia University Press, New York and London

    Google Scholar 

  • Mincer J, Polachek S (1974) Family investment in human capital. In: Schulz TW (ed) Economics of the Family. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  • Polacheck SW, Siebert WS (1993) The Economics of Earnings. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Schippers JJ (1987) Beloningsverschillen Tussen Mannen en Vrouwen; Een economische analyse. Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

The author wishes to thank his colleagues from “de Leerstoel Vergelijkende Bevolkings- en Emancipatie-economie”, especially Siv Gustafsson, John F. Ermisch and two anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of this paper. The author is also thankful for Mr. and Mrs. van Ingen for their advice on improving the English text. Financial support from the FMO is gratefully acknowledged. Responsible editors: Siv S. Gustafsson, John F. Ermisch.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dankmeyer, B. Long run opportunity-costs of children according to education of the mother in the Netherlands. J Popul Econ 9, 349–361 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00176692

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00176692

JEL classification

  • J22
  • J13

Key words

  • Childbirth
  • labour force participation
  • human capital