Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 23–27 | Cite as

Color bands function as secondary sexual traits in male red-winged blackbirds

  • Karen J. Metz
  • Patrick J. Weatherhead


We present the first experiment to assess band color effects in a natural bird population. 38 territorial male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 banding treatments. They received either all red bands (to match their epaulets) or all black bands (controls). Over half the red-banded males lost their territories while all black-banded males retained their territories. Red and black-banded males did not differ morphologically. However, among red-banded males, those that lost their territories had larger epaulets and were in poorer condition than those retaining their territories. Red-banded males suffered much higher intrusion rates, particularly by neighbors, than black-banded males. We propose that red color bands exaggerated the males' natural aggressive signal beyond the point where the signal was reliable. Our results suggest that signal reliability is maintained by regular testing, particularly of those males most likely to be signalling dishonestly.


Poor Condition Bird Population Color Effect Color Band Signal Reliability 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen J. Metz
    • 1
  • Patrick J. Weatherhead
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

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