Involvement of the Na,K-ATPase in the induction of ion channels by palytoxin

  • Soung Y. Kim
  • Kenneth A. Marx
  • Chau H. Wu
Original Article


The effects of ouabain, ATP, and vanadate on palytoxin induction of ion channels were examined with the aim of elucidating the role of Na,K-ATPase in palytoxin action. Palytoxin-induced membrane depolarization of crayfish giant axons and single channel currents of frog erythrocytes and mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells were examined using the intracellular microelectrode and patch-clamp techniques. External application of palytoxin in nanomolar concentrations induced depolarization in the crayfish giant axons, and the depolarization was inhibited by pretreatment of the axon with ouabain (10 μM). Internally perfused axons were less sensitive to palytoxin unless ATP (6 mM) was added internally. In patch-clamp experiments, picomolar palytoxin in the patch electrode induced single channels in both cell-attached and inside-out patches of erythrocytes and neuroblastoma cells. The induced channels had a conductance of about 10 pS, reversed near 0 mV in physiological saline solution, and was permeable to Na+, K+, Cs+, and NH inf4 sup+ , but not to choline. Single channel activities induced by palytoxin were inhibited by ouabain (10 μM) and vanadate (1 mM), but promoted by ATP (1 mM). The modulating effects of ouabain, vanadate, and ATP on palytoxin action suggest that the Na,K-ATPase is involved in the induction of single channels by palytoxin. Palytoxin-induced and ouabain-inhibitable single channels were observed in planar lipid bilayer incorporated with purified Na,K-ATPase. The results indicate that an interaction between palytoxin and Na, K-ATPase leads to opening of a 10-pS ion channel. They further raise the possibility that a channel structure may exist in the sodium pump which is uncovered by the action of palytoxin.

Key words

Na,K-ATPase Palytoxin Ion channels Ouabain ATP Vanadate 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soung Y. Kim
    • 1
  • Kenneth A. Marx
    • 1
  • Chau H. Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological ChemistryNorthwestern University Medical SchoolChicagoUSA

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