Variable resource defense by the Tana River crested mangabey

Summary

Behavioral observations over 16 months of two groups of Tana River crested mangabeys (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus) in East Africa provide evidence, contrary to previous reports, for site-specific aggression and territorial exclusion. In addition, movements and vocal responses to neighboring group's long-call vocalizations vary temporally, reflecting seasonal variation in food availability and distribution. Patterns of response to neighboring groups are consistent with the hypothesis that resources should be defended only when it is economic to do so. When fruit resources are rare intergroup interactions are infrequent and groups use separate areas. As fruit availability increases, the distribution of diet species influences the type of interaction; peaceful intergroup interactions generally occur when mangabeys eat uniformly distributed species and aggressive interactions occur when mangabeys eat species with patchy distributions. Differences between male vocal responses and group spatial responses may reflect conflicting objectives of territorial defense by males and females.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–267.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Altmann S, Altmann J (1970) Baboon Ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago IL.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Brown JH (1964) The evolution of diversity of avian territorial systems. Wilson Bull 76:160–169.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Butynski TM (1990) Comparative ecology of blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in high- and low-density subpopulations. Ecol Monogr 60(1)1–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chapman C, Fedigan LM (1984) Territoriality in the St. Kits vervet, Cercopithecus aethiops. J Hum Evol 13:677–686.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cox DR (1970) The analysis of binary data. Chapman and Hall, London UK.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Davies NB, Houston AI (1984) Territory economics. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary approach. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA, pp 148–169.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ewald PW, Carpenter FL (1978) Territorial responses to energy manipulations in the Anna hummingbird. Oecologia 31:277–292.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Freund RJ, Littell RC (1981) SAS for linear models. SAS Institute, Raleigh NC.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Gartlan JS, Brain CK (1968) Ecology and social variability in Cercopithecus aethiops and C. mitis. In: Jay P (ed) Primates: studies in adaptation and variability. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York NY, pp 253–293.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Hamilton WJ III, Buskirk RE, Buskirk WH (1976) Defence of space and resources by chacma (Papio ursinus) baboon troops in an African desert and swamp. Ecology 57:1263–1272.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Homewood KM (1976) Ecology and behavior of the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus). Unpublished PhD disseration, University of London, UK.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Horn H (1968) The adaptive significance of colonial nesting in the brewers blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus). Ecology 49:682–694.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Jolly A (1972) Troop continuity and troop spacing in Propithecus verreauxi and Lemur catta at Berenty (Madagascar). Folia Primatol 17:335–362.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Kavanagh M (1981) Variable territoriality among Tantalus monkeys in Cameroon. Folia Primatol 36:76–98.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Kinnaird MF (1990) Behavioral and demographic responses to habitat change by the Tana river crested mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus galeritus). Unpublished Ph D dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville FL.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kinnaird MF (1992) Phenology of flowering and fruiting in an East African riverine forest ecosystem. Biotropica, in press.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Kodric-Brown A, Brown JH (1978) Influence of economics, inter-specific competition, and sexual dimorphism on territoriality in immigrant rufous hummingburds. Ecology 59:285–296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. McCullagh P, Nelder JA (1983) Generalized linear models. Chapman and Hall, London UK.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Marsh CM (1978) Tree phenology in a gallery forest on the Tana River, Kenya. E Afr Agric For J 43(4):305–316.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Medley KE (1990) Forest ecology and conservation in the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya. Unpublished Ph D disseration, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Mitani JC, Rodman PS (1979) Territoriality: the relation of ranging pattern and home range size to defendability, with an analysis of territoriality among primate species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 5:241–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Morisita M (1959) Measuring the dispersion of individuals and analysis of the distributional patterns. Mem Fac Sci Kjyushu Univ Ser E (Biol) 2:215–235.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Ostfeld RS (1985) Limiting resources and territoriality in microtine rodents. Am Nat 126(1):1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Ostfeld RS (1990) The ecology of territoriality in small mammals. Trends Ecol Evol 5(12):411–415.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Robinson JG (1985) Expected benefits determine area defense: experiments with capuchin monkeys. Nat Geogr Res Rep 21:421–424.

    Google Scholar 

  27. SAS (1985) SAS User's Guide. SAS Institute Incorporated, Cary, NC.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Schoener TW (1987) Time budgets and territory size: some simultaneous optimization models for energy maximizers. Am Zool 27:259–291.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry. Freeman Press, San Francisco, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Stephens DW, Krebs JR (1986) Foraging theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Struhsaker TT, Leland L (1979) Socioecology of five sympatric monkey species in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Adv Study Behav 9:159–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Waser P (1975) Experimental playbacks show vocal mediation of intergroup avoidance in a forest monkey. Nature 255:56–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Waser P (1976) Cercocebus albigena: site attachment, avoidance, and intergroup spacing. Am Nat 110: 911–935.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Waser P (1982) The evolution of male loud calls among mangabeys and baboons. In: Snowdon CT, Brown CH, Petersen MR (eds) Primate communication. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp 117–143.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Waser P, Floody O (1974) Ranging patterns of the mangabey, Cercocebus albigena, in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Z Tierpsychol 35:85–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Waser P, Homewood K (1979) Cost-benefit approaches to territoriality: a test with forest primates. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 6:115–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Whitehead JM (1989) The effect of the location of simulated intruder on responses to long-distance vocalization of mantled howling monkeys, Alouata palliata palliata. Behaviour 108:73–103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Wrangham RW (1980) An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75:262–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Yoshiba K (1968) Local and intertroop variability in ecology and social behavior of common Indian langurs. In: Jay PC (ed) Primates: studies in adaptability and variability. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York NY, pp 217–242.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Margaret F. Kinnaird.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kinnaird, M.F. Variable resource defense by the Tana River crested mangabey. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31, 115–122 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00166344

Download citation

Keywords

  • Seasonal Variation
  • Food Availability
  • Crest
  • Defend
  • Behavioral Observation