Skip to main content

Equality and fertility in the kibbutz


The kibbutz' quest for equality makes a member's consumption independent of his contribution to production, and the kibbutz itself responsible for almost all childrearing expenses. This fundamental departure from the standard organization of economic life of course affects fertility. We find that a parent's predicted wage (as determined by the parent's individual characteristics) has a smaller positive effect on fertility in the city than in the kibbutz, and that a parent's education has a negative effect on fertility in the city and either a smaller negative effect or no effect in the kibbutz.

Correspondence to Leif Danziger.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Barkai H (1977)Growth patterns of the kibbutz economy. North-Holland, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  • Ben-Porath Y (1972) Fertility in Israel, an economist's interpretation: Differentials and trends, 1950–1970. In: Cooper CA, Alexander SS (eds) Economic development and population growth in the Middle East. American Elsevier Publ Co, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Ben-Porath Y (1973) Economic analysis of fertility in Israel: Point and counterpoint. J Polit Econ 81:S202-S233

    Google Scholar 

  • Danziger L, Neuman S (1989) Intergenerational effects on fertility: Theory and evidence from Israel. J Popul Econ 2:25–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Gordon AD (1952) The nation and the work (in Hebrew). The Zionist Library, Jerusalem

    Google Scholar 

  • Heckman JJ (1976) The common structure of models of truncation, sample selection, and limited dependent variables and a simple estimator for such models. Ann Econ Soc Measur 5:475–492

    Google Scholar 

  • Heckman JJ (1979) Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica 47:153–161

    Google Scholar 

  • Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (1969) Main data of the Census — Summary, population and housing census 1961. Publication No 42

  • Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (1987) Population and localities, Census of population and housing 1983. Publication No 12

  • Lee LF (1983) Generalized econometric models with selectivity. Econometrica 51:507–512

    Google Scholar 

  • Neuman S (1991) Occupational sex segregation in the kibbutz: Principles and practice. Kyklos 44:203–219

    Google Scholar 

  • Spiro ME (1980) Gender and culture: Kibbutz women revisited. Schocken Books, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Tiger L, Shepher J (1975) Women in the kibbutz. Harcourt, Brace and Janovitch, New York

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Additional information

We thank the referees and Alessandro Cigno for helpful comments. Leif Danziger acknowledges the financial support from the Faculty of Arts, York University.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Danziger, L., Neuman, S. Equality and fertility in the kibbutz. J Popul Econ 6, 57–66 (1993).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Individual Characteristic
  • Fundamental Departure
  • Standard Organization
  • Economic Life
  • Small Positive Effect