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Effects of the one-child family policy on second and third births in Hebei, Shaanxi and Shanghai

Abstract

This paper uses the proportional hazards model to assess the effect of the Chinese one-child policy on second and third births. The differential effects of the policy between the urban and rural areas and by the sex of previous children are highlighted. First, the urban-rural differentials have increased much after the policy, suggesting a more rapid increase in the costs of children and stricter government controls in the urban areas. Second, the sex of children has become a more important factor after the policy. The considerably higher risks to a subsequent birth among sonless families indicate the persistent strong son preferences among Chinese parents, especially in less developed areas. Although son preferences seem suppressed in Shanghai, the higher risks to a second birth after the death of a son compared to a daughter are indicative of the son preferences even in Shanghai. Relaxation of the one-child policy may increase the Chinese fertility.

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Ahn, N. Effects of the one-child family policy on second and third births in Hebei, Shaanxi and Shanghai. J Popul Econ 7, 63–78 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00160438

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00160438

Keywords

  • High Risk
  • Urban Area
  • Rural Area
  • Differential Effect
  • Hazard Model