Advertisement

GeoJournal

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 105–112 | Cite as

Mountains, nations, parks, and conservation

A case study of the Mt. Everest area
  • Taylor-Ide Daniel 
  • Byers Alton C. III
  • Campbell J. Gabriel 
Article

Abstract

Between 1985 and 1991, two new mountain protected areas (MTNPA) covering more than 35,000 km2 and based on participatory management models — the Makalu-Barun National Park and Conservation Area, Nepal, and Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Tibet Autonomous Region — were successfully established through the collaborative efforts of Woodlands Mountain Institute and conservationists in China and Nepal. Characteristics common to both projects include the importance of establishing (1) effective rationales, (2) local support constituencies, (3) a senior advisory group, (4) a task force, (5) linkages between conservation and development, and (6) fund raising mechanisms. The lessons derived from the experiences of Woodlands Mountain Institute are of significant value to others in preserving MTNPA. Increased collaboration and communication between all interested in conservation, however, will remain a critical component for expanding mountain protected area coverage to throughout the world.

Keywords

Environmental Management Nature Preserve Protected Area Area Coverage Critical Component 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allan, N.J.R. et al. (eds): Human Impact on Mountains. Rowman and Littlefield, New Jersey 1988.Google Scholar
  2. Byers, A.C.: Contemporary Tourist Impacts on Three Sides of Everest. Unpublished paper presented a the IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas. Caracas, 1992 a.Google Scholar
  3. Byers,A.C.: Sub-Alpine Forest Dynamics and Pollen Analysis in the Upper Barun valley, Nepal. Unpublished report. Woodlands Mountain Institute, 1992 b.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell, J.G.: Closing Speech: Community Development Workshop, Shigatze, May 10–12, 1990. Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Shigatze 1990 a.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, J. G.: Seminar on Community Development in Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Shigatze. Unpublished report. Woodlands Mountain Institute, 1990 b.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, J. G.: Mt. Everest Ecosystem Conservation Program. Unpublished paper presented at the 8th Meeting of Investment Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in the Asia/Pacific Region, The World Bank, Washington, DC 25 September 1990, 1990 c.Google Scholar
  7. Chaffey, P.: Livestock Survey in Northwest Sankhuwasabha. Unpublished report, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1989.Google Scholar
  8. Chang, D. H. S.: The Vegetation Zonation of the Tibet Plateau. Mountain Research and Development 1:29–48, (1981).Google Scholar
  9. Chinese Academy of Sciences: The Mammals of Mount Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Area in China. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 1990 a.Google Scholar
  10. Chinese Academy of Sciences: Physical Geography of the Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) Region. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 1990 b.Google Scholar
  11. Chien, Chun Wuei Su: The Signing of an Agrement: 26 October 1989, Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China Unpublished report. Woodlands Mountain Institute 1989 a.Google Scholar
  12. Chien, Chun Wuei Su: Unpublished Trip Report, February 13 to March 28, 1989. Woodlands Mountain Institute, 1989 b.Google Scholar
  13. Coburn, B.; Menzies, N.: Report on the Summer 1987 Tibet Study Tour. Unpublished report. Woodlands Mountain Institute, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. Cronin, E.W.: The Arun: A Natural History of the World's Deepest Valley. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston 1979.Google Scholar
  15. Dunsmore, S.: Mountain Environmental Management in the Arun River Basin of Nepal. Occasional Paper No. 9, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu (1988)Google Scholar
  16. Feng Zuo-jian; Cai Gui-quan; Zheng Chang-lin.: The Mammals of Tibet. Science Press, Beijing 1986.Google Scholar
  17. Fleming, R. L., Tr.: A Natural History of the Everest Area: A Summary. Unpublished Report, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1989.Google Scholar
  18. Forbes, A.A.: Preliminary Report on Forest Management Systems in Bung and Chheskam Panchayats. Unpublished report, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1989.Google Scholar
  19. Goldstein, M.C.; Beall, C.M.: Nomads of Western Tibet. Berkeley University of California Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  20. Howard-Bury, C. K.: Mount Everest: The Reconnaissance. Edward Arnold, London 1922.Google Scholar
  21. Ives, J.D.: The Mountain Malaise. In: Singh, T.V.; Kaur, J. (eds.), Integrated Mountain Development. Himalayan Books, New Delhi 1985.Google Scholar
  22. Jackson, R.: Threatened Wildlife, Crop and Wildlife Depredation and Grazing in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. Report 12, Working Paper Publication Series, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1990 a.Google Scholar
  23. Jackson, R.; Ahlborn, G.: A High-Altitude Survey of the Hongu Valley with Special Emphasis on Snow Leopard. Consultant Report, Woodlands Mountain Institute and HMG Department of National Parks and Wild Conservation, Kathmandu 1987.Google Scholar
  24. Jackson, R.; Nepali, H.S.; Sherpa, A.R.: Apects of Wildlife Protection and Utilization in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. Report 11, Working Publication Series, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1990.Google Scholar
  25. Jeffries, M.: Sagarmatha, Mother of the Universe: The Story of Mt Everest National Park. Cobb/Hornwood Publications, Auckland 1985.Google Scholar
  26. Khanal, N.R.: Study of Geo-Hydrology, Land Use and Population of Makalu-Barun Conservation Project Area. Report 14, Working Paper Publication Series, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1991 b.Google Scholar
  27. Khanal, N.R.: Geo-Ecological Study of Apsuwa Watershed. Report 15, Working Paper Publication Series, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1991 a.Google Scholar
  28. Makalu-Barun Conservation Project Task Force: The Makalu-Barun Conservation Project Management Plan. Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1990.Google Scholar
  29. Nepal Electricity Authority: Arun III Hydroelectric Project: Detailed Engineering Services. Environmental and Socio-Economic Report. Vol. 1: Main Report. Government of Nepal, Kathmandu 1990.Google Scholar
  30. Nepali, R.K.; Sangam, K.: Status of Community Needs, Resources and Development: Sankhuwasabha Disrict. Report 7, Working Paper Publication Series, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1990.Google Scholar
  31. Numata, M.: Vegetation and Conservation in Eastern Nepal. Jour. College of Arts and Sciences, Chiba University 4,559–569 (1986)Google Scholar
  32. Numata, M.: Ecological Studies in the Arun Valley, East Nepal and Mountaineering of Mt. Baruntse, 1981. Himalayan Comm. Chiba University, 1983.Google Scholar
  33. Polunin, O.; Stainton, A: Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford Univ. Press, Delhi 1984.Google Scholar
  34. Reinhard. J: Khembalung: The Hidden Valley. Kailash VI, 5–36 (1978)Google Scholar
  35. Schweinfurth, U.: Die Horizontale und VertikaIe Verbreitung der Vegetation im Himalaya. Ferd. Dümmlers Verlag, Bonn 1957.Google Scholar
  36. Shrestha, T.B: Development Ecology of the Arun River Basin in Nepal. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu 1989.Google Scholar
  37. Shrestha, T.B.: The Makalu-Barun Conservation Project in the Everest Ecosystem. Unpublished paper presented on Environment Media Seminar Toronto, Canada, March 1990, 1990 a.Google Scholar
  38. Shrestha, T.B: Scientific Research Management Plan. Makalu-Barun Conservation project, Kathmandu 1990 b.Google Scholar
  39. Shrestha, T.B.; Shakya, P.R.; and Nepali, H.S: Scientific Report on 1989 Field Survey: General and Phyto-Ecology. Report 8, Working Paper Publication Series, Makalu-Barun Conservation Project, Kathmandu 1990.Google Scholar
  40. Stainton, J.D.A: Forests of Nepal. John Murray and Company, London 1972.Google Scholar
  41. Taylor-Ide, D: The Barun Valley Report. Project Report. The King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation/Woodlands Mountain Institute, Kathmandu 1984.Google Scholar
  42. Tibet Academy of Social Sciences (TASS): General Survey of Social Science, Qomolangma Nature Preserve. Report Summary, 1990.Google Scholar
  43. Troll, C. (ed.): Geoecology of the High Mountain Regions of Eurasia. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden 1972.Google Scholar
  44. Wang Zuxiang; Li Dehao; Cai Guiquan: New Materials on Birds and Mammals from Qomolangma Area and an Approach to the Subspecies of Hemitragus jemlahicus. Acta Biologica Plateau Sinica 2:81–100 (1984)Google Scholar
  45. Ward, K.: Plant Hunter's Paradise. Reprint. Minerva Press, 1937.Google Scholar
  46. Wells, M.; Brandon, K.; Hannah, L: People and Parks: An Analysis of Projects Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. Draft report. The World Bank, Washington DC 1990.Google Scholar
  47. Zhang Jing-wei; Li Bosheng; Chen Wei-lie; Wang Jin-ting: Vegetation of Xizano (Tibet). Science Press, Beijing 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taylor-Ide Daniel 
    • 1
  • Byers Alton C. III
    • 1
  • Campbell J. Gabriel 
    • 1
  1. 1.Woodlands Mountain InstituteFranklinUSA

Personalised recommendations