Advertisement

Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 295–306 | Cite as

The development and influence of gas bubbles in phreatic aquifers under natural flow conditions

  • Daniel Ronen
  • Brian Berkowitz
  • Mordeckai Magaritz
Article

Abstract

In a phreatic aquifer, bubbles may result from the entrapment of air during groundwater recharge and/or bacterial metabolism. The calculated critical depth of about 1 m at which bubbles are most likely to be found in a granular aquifer, coincides with the depth of 0.60 m of an almost stagnant water layer (specific discharge 1 × 10-6 cm sec-1) found at the water table region under natural flow conditions. Bubbles clog pores and therefore reduce the hydraulic conductivity without significantly reducing the volumetric water content. Stagnation at the water table region results since prevailing pressures (in the order of 10-1 atmospheres) are not sufficiently large to move bubbles through porous media in a water environment.

Key words

Gas/air bubbles phreatic aquifers hydraulic conductivity bacterial activity entrapment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Batchelor, G. K., 1967, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Bear, J., 1972, Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Blanchard, D. C. and Syzdek, L. D., 1977, Production of air bubbles of a specified size, Chem. Eng. Sci. 32, 1109–1112.Google Scholar
  4. Chapelle, F. H., Zelibor Jr., J. L., Grimes, D. J., and Knobel, L. L., 1987, Bacteria in deep Coastal Plain sediments of Maryland: a possible source of CO2 to groundwater, Water Resour. Res. 23, 1625–1632.Google Scholar
  5. Collins, R. E., 1976, Flow of Fluid Through Porous Materials, Petroleum Publishing Co., Tulsa.Google Scholar
  6. Corey, A. T., 1977, Mechanics of Heterogeneous Fluids in Porous Media, Water Resources Publications, Fort Collins, Colorado.Google Scholar
  7. Dullien, F. A. L., 1979, Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Gardescu, I. I., 1930, Behavior of gas bubbles in capillary spaces, Trans. AIME, 86, 351–370.Google Scholar
  9. Goldenberg, L. C., Hutcheon, I., and Wardlaw, N., 1989, Experiments on transport of hydrophobic particles and gas bubbles in porous media, Transport in Porous Media 4, 129–145.Google Scholar
  10. Greenberg, M., 1975, Mineralogical and petrological study of samples from Nizanim observation wells I–IV, Geological Survey of Israel Report M.S./101/75.Google Scholar
  11. Kaluarachchi, J. J. and Parker, J. C., 1987, Effects of hysteresis with air entrapment on water flow in the unsaturated zone, Water Resour. Res. 23, 1967–1976.Google Scholar
  12. Lenhard, R. J. and Parker, J. C., 1987, A model for hysteretic constitutive relations governing multiphase flow, 2. Permeability-saturation relations, Water Resour. Res. 23, 2197–2206.Google Scholar
  13. Levich, V. G., 1962, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  14. Magaritz, M., Brenner, I., and Ronen, D., 1988, Microscale distribution of Ba+ and Sr++ in groundwater (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Matthess, G. and Pekdeger, A., 1985, Survival and transport of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in groundwater, in C. H. Ward, W. Giger, and P. L. McCarty (eds.), Groundwater Quality, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Memery, L. and Merlivat, L., 1985, Modelling of gas flux through bubbles at the air-water interface, Tellus 37B, 272–285.Google Scholar
  17. Molz, F. J., Widdowson, M. A., and Benefield, L. D., 1986, Simulation of microbial growth dynamics coupled to nutrient and oxygen transportation porous media, Water Resour. Res. 22, 1207–1216.Google Scholar
  18. Parker, J. C. and Lenhard, R. J., 1987, A model for hysteretic constitutive relations governing multiphase flow, 1. Saturation-pressure relations, Water Resour. Res. 23, 2187–2196.Google Scholar
  19. Ronen, D., Magaritz, M., Paldor, N., and Bachmat, Y., 1986, The behavior of groundwater in the vicinity of the water table evidence by specific discharge profiles, Water Resour. Res. 22, 1217–1224.Google Scholar
  20. Ronen, D., Magaritz, M., Almon, E., and Amiel, A. J., 1987, Anthropogenic anoxification (‘eutro-phication’) of the water table region of a deep phreatic aquifer, Water Resour. Res. 23, 1554–1560.Google Scholar
  21. Ronen, D., Magaritz, M., and Almon, E., 1988, Contaminated aquifers are a forgotten component of the global N2O budget, Nature 335, 57–59.Google Scholar
  22. Soares, M. I. M., Belkin, S., and Abeliovich, A., 1987, Biological groundwater denitrification: laboratory studies, in International Symposium on Groundwater Microbiology; Problems and Biological Treatment, Kuopio, Finland.Google Scholar
  23. Wilson, J. T., McNabb, J. F., Balkwill, D. L., and Ghiorse, W. C., 1983, Enumeration and characterization of bacteria indigenous to a shallow water-table aquifer, Groundwater 21, 134–142.Google Scholar
  24. Wood, W. W. and Petratis, M. J., 1984, Origin and distribution of carbon dioxide in the unsaturated zone of the southern High Plains of Texas, Water Resour. Res. 20, 1193–1208.Google Scholar
  25. You, J. L. Jr., 1982, Air injection to modify groundwater flow, Radioactive Waste Manage. 2, 203–221.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Ronen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brian Berkowitz
    • 2
  • Mordeckai Magaritz
    • 1
  1. 1.Isotope DepartmentThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael
  2. 2.Research DepartmentHydrological ServiceJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations