A dozen general principles of landscape and regional ecology are delineated to stimulate their evaluation, refinement, and usage. Brief background material and a few references provide entrées into the subjects. The principles are presented in four groups: landscapes and regions; patches and corridors; mosaics; and applications. Most appear useful in solving a wide range of environmental and societal land-use issues.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ambuel, B. and Temple, S.A. 1983. Area dependent changes in the bird communities and vegetation of southern Wisconsin forests. Ecology 64: 1057–1068.
Angelstam, P. 1992. Conservation of communities - the importance of edges, surroundings and landscape mosaic structure. In Ecological Principles of Nature Conservation: Applications in Temperate and Boreal Environments, pp. 9–70. Edited by L. Hansson. Elsevier, London.
Baudry, J. and Burel, F. 1984. Landscape project: remembrement: landscape consolidation in France. Landscape Planning 11: 235–241.
Brandle, J.R., Hintz, D.L. and Sturrock, J.W., eds. 1988. Windbreak technology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. (Reprinted from Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vols. 22–23).
Burke, I.C., Schimel, D.S., Yonder, C.M., Parton, W.J., Joyce, L.A. and Lauenroth, W.K. 1990. Regional modeling of grassland biogeochemistry using GIS. Landscape Ecology 4: 45–54.
den Boer, P.J. 1981. On the survival of populations in a heterogeneous and variable environment. Oecologia 50: 39–53.
Fahrig, L. and Merriam, G. 1985. Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology 66: 1762–1768.
Foin, T.C., Jr. 1976. Ecological systems and the environment. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Forman, R.T.T. 1979. Pine barrens: ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York.
Forman, R.T.T. 1987. The ethics of isolation, the spread of disturbance, and landscape ecology. In Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance, pp. 213–229. Edited by M.G. Turner. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Forman, R.T.T. 1995. Land mosaics: the ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. In press.
Forman, R.T.T. and Collinge, S.K. 1995. The ‘spatial solution’ to conserving biodiversity in landscapes and regions. In Conservation of Faunal Diversity in Forested Landscapes. In press. Edited by R.M. DeGraaf and R.I. Miller. Chapman and Hall, London.
Forman, R.T.T. and Godron, M. 1986. Landscape ecology. John Wiley, New York.
Forman, R.T.T. and Moore, P.N. 1992. Theoretical foundations for understanding boundaries in landscape mosaics. In Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows, pp. 236–258. Edited by A.J. Hansen and F. di Castri. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Franklin, J.F. and Forman, R.T.T. 1987. Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecology 1: 5–18.
Fritz, R.S. 1979. Consequences of insular population structure: distribution and extinction of spruce grouse populations. Oecologia 42: 57–65.
Froment, A. and Wildmann, B. 1987. Landscape ecology and rural restructuring in Belgium. Landscape and Urban Planning 14: 415–426.
Greig-Smith, P. 1983. Quantitative plant ecology. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Gutzwiller, K.J. and Anderson, S.H. 1987. Multiscale associations between cavity-nesting birds and features of Wyoming streamside woodlands. Condor 89: 534–548.
Gutzwiller, K.J. and Anderson, S.H. 1992. Interception of moving organisms: influences of patch shape, size, and orientaion on community structure. Landscape Ecology 6: 293–303.
Haber, W. 1990. Using landscape ecology in planning and management. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective, pp. 217–232. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Hansen, A.J. and di Castri, F., eds. 1992. Landscape boundaries: consequences for biotic diversity and ecological flows. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Hansen, A.J., Urban, D.L. and Marks, B. 1992. Avian community dynamics: the interplay of landscape trajectories and species life histories. In Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows, pp. 170–195. Edited by A.J. Hansen and F. di Castri. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Hanski, I. 1991. Single species metapopulation dynamics: concepts, models and observations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 42: 17–38.
Harms, B. and Opdam, P. 1990. Woods as habitat patches for birds: application in landscape planning in The Netherlands. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective, pp. 73–97. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Harris, L.D. 1984. The fragmented forest: island biogeography theory and the preservation of biotic diversity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Harris, L.D. and Kangas, P. 1979. Designing future landscapes from principles of form and function. In Our National Landscape: Applied Techniques for Analysis and Management of the Visual Resource. pp. 725–729. Edited by G.H. Pilsner and R.C. Smardon. General Technical Report PSW-34, U.S. Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
Isard, W. 1975. Introduction to regional science. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Karr, J.R. 1982. Population variability and extinction in the avifauna of a tropical land bridge island. Ecology 63: 1975–1978.
Koppen, W. 1931. Grundriss der Klimakunde. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
Kozova, M., Smitalova, K. and Vizyova, A. 1986. Use of measures of network connectivity in the evaluation of ecological landscape stability. Ekologia (Czechoslovakia) 5: 187–202.
Knaapen, J.P., Scheffer, M. and Harms, B. 1992. Estimating habitat isolation in landscape planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 23: 1–16.
Liu, J., Cubbage, F.W. and Pulliam, H.R. 1994. Ecological and economic effects of forest landscape structure and rotation length: simulation studies using ECOLECON. Ecological Economics 10: 249–263.
Lovejoy, T.E., Rankin, J.M., Bierregaard, R.O., Jr., Brown, K.S., Jr., Emmons, L.H. and van der Voort, M. 1984. Ecosystem decay of Amazon forest remnants. In Extinctions. pp. 295–325. Edited by M.H. Niteki. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Martinsson, B., Hansson, L. and Angelstam, P. 1993. Small mammal dynamics in adjacent landscapes with varying predator communities. Annales Zoologici Fennici 30: 31–42.
McHarg, I.L. 1969. Design with Nature. Doubleday, Garden City, New York.
Merriam, H.G. 1988. Landscape dynamics in farmland. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3: 16–20.
Mueller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley, New York.
Norton, D.A. and Lord, J.M. 1990. On the use of ‘grain size’ in ecology. Functional Ecology 4: 719.
Noss, R. 1993. Wildlife corridors. In Ecology of Greenways: Design and Function of Linear Conservation Areas. pp. 43–68. Edited by D.S. Smith and P.C. Hellmund. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Odum, E.P. and Turner, M.G. 1990. The Georgia landscape: a changing resource. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. pp. 137–164. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.
O'Neill, R.V., Krummel, J.R., Gardner, R.H., Sugihara, G., Jackson, B., DeAngelis, D.L., Milne, B.T., Turner, M.G., Zygmunt, B., Christensen, S.W., Dale, V.H. and Graham, R.L. 1988. Indices of landscape pattern. Landscape Ecology 1: 153–162.
Opdam, P. 1991. Metapopulation theory and habitat fragmentation: a review of holarctic breeding bird studies. Landscape Ecology 5: 93–106.
Peterken, G.F. and Allison, H. 1989. Woods, trees and hedges: a review of changes in the British countryside. Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, UK.
Pickett, S.T.A. and White, P.S., eds. 1985. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York.
Richter, H. 1984. Geographische landschaftsprognose. Geographische Berichte 111: 91–102.
Risser, P.G. 1987. Landscape ecology: state-of-the-art. In Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance. pp. 3–14. Edited by M.G. Turner. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Risser, P.G., Karr, J.R. and Forman, R.T.T. 1984. Landscape ecology: directions and approaches. Special Publication 2, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois.
Ruzicka, M. and Miklos, L. 1990. Basic premises and methods in landscape ecological planning and optimization. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. pp. 233–260. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Saunders, D.A., Arnold, G.W., Burbidge, A.A. and Hopkins, A.J.M., eds. 1987. Nature conservation: the role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, Australia.
Saunders, D.A. and Hobbs, R.J., eds. 1991. Nature conservation 2: the role of corridors. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, Australia.
Schreiber, K.-F., ed. 1988. Connectivity in landscape ecology. Munstersche Geographische Arbeiten 29, Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn, Germany.
Schreiber, K.-F. 1990. The history of landscape ecology in Europe. In Changing Landscapes: An Ecological Perspective. pp. 21–34. Edited by I.S. Zonneveld and R.T.T. Forman. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Senft, R.L., Coughenour, M.B., Bailey, D.W., Rittenhouse, L.R., Sala, O.E. and Swift, D.M. 1987. Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies. BioScience 37: 789–799.
Shaver, G.R., Nadelhoffer, K.J. and Giblin, A.E. 1991. Biogeochemical diversity and element transport in a heterogeneous landscape, the North Slope of Alaska. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. pp. 105–125. Edited by M.G. Turner and R.H. Gardner. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Skidmore, E.L. 1987. Wind-erosion direction factors as influenced by field shape and wind preponderance. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51: 198–202.
Swingland, I.R. and Greenwood, P.J., eds. 1983. The ecology of animal movement. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Troll, C. 1939. Luftbildplan und okologische Bodenforschung. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin, pp. 241–298.
Troll, C. 1968. Landschaftsokologie. In Pflanzensoziologie und Landschaftsokologie. pp. 1–21. Edited by R. Tuxen. Berichte das 1963 Internalen Symposiums der Internationalen Vereinigung fur Vegetationskunde, The Hague.
Turner, M.G., ed. 1987. Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Turner, M.G. 1989. Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20: 171–197.
van der Zande, A.N., ter Keurs, W.J. and van der Weijden, W.J. 1980. The impact of roads on the densities of four bird species in an open field habitat - evidence of a long distance effect. Biological Conservation 18: 299–321.
van Noorden, B. 1986. Dynamiek en dichtheid van bosvogels in geisoleerde loofbosfragmenten. Report 86/19, Research Institute for Nature Management, Leersum, Netherlands.
Verboom, J., Schotman, A., Opdam, P. and Metz, J.A.J. 1991. European nuthatch metapopulations in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Oikos 61: 149–156.
Watt, A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35: 1–22.
Wiens, J.A. 1990. On the use of ‘grain’ and ‘grain size’ in ecology. Functional Ecology 4: 720.
Wiens, J.A., Crawford, C.S. and Gosz, J.R. 1986. Boundary dynamics: a conceptual framework for studying landscape ecosystems. Oikos 45: 421–427.
Wiens, J.A., Stenseth, N.C., van Horne, B. and Ims, R.A. 1993. Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology. Oikos 66: 369–380.
About this article
Cite this article
Forman, R.T.T. Some general principles of landscape and regional ecology. Landscape Ecol 10, 133–142 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00133027
- grain size
- indispensable pattern
- land mosaic
- landscape change
- landscape ecology
- metapopulation dynamics
- mosaic sequence
- patch shape
- regional ecology