Patterns of species-richness and endemism in the Gulf of Guinea reflect the region's biogeographic history. Bioko is a continental-shelf island that was recently connected to the African mainland, whereas Príncipe, São Tomé and Annobón are truly oceanic and have never been connected with each other or with the mainland. As a result, Bioko supports a much more diverse flora and fauna but with relatively low levels of endemism at the species level, whereas the oceanic islands are relatively depauperate because of their isolation but rich in endemic taxa. Species endemism is 0–3% on Bioko for angiosperms, bats, birds, reptiles and amphibians, compared with much higher values on Principe for these same taxa of 8% (plants) to 100% (amphibians), on São Tomé between 14% (plants) and 100% (amphibians), and on Annobón 0% (bats) to 71% (reptiles). On a global scale, for their size both Príncipe and São Tomé support unusually high numbers of single-island endemic species of birds, reptiles and amphibia. For its tiny size, Annobón is also notable for its endemic birds and reptiles. Among terrestrial molluscs the rates of endemism are in general higher than for plants and vertebrates, from ca 50% on Bioko to ca 80% on the oceanic islands. In contrast and as might be expected, only Bioko supports a rich freshwater fish fauna and it contains many endemic taxa, whereas the oceanic islands support only a few salt-tolerant species. The Gulf of Guinea islands are also important for their marine organisms, amongst which coral reef fish and marginellid molluscs show high levels of endemism, though they are not especially species-rich. The Gulf of Guinea islands are of great interest to conservationists and evolutionary biologists. Each island, of greatly differing size and degree of isolation, has acquired its unique sub-set of plants and animals separately from the neighbouring mainland, followed by adaptive radiations in situ. For this reason the conservation value of the archipelago as a whole is greater than the sum of the biodiversity contained in its individual islands. Conservation initiatives in the Gulf of Guinea should therefore ensure that representative terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats and groups of organisms are targeted in a co-ordinated manner among the islands.
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Jones, P.J. Biodiversity in the Gulf of Guinea: an overview. Biodivers Conserv 3, 772–784 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00129657
- Gulf of Guinea