This paper examines the nature of scrambling in Japanese in the light of Webelhuth (1989) and Mahajan (1989). Webelhuth proposes that scrambling is uniformly movement to a third type of position, the non-operation/non-A position, and that this position has the binding properties of both A and A′ (operator) positions. Mahajan does not recognize the third type of position, and argues that clause-internal scrambling can be either A or A′ movement, while “long distance” scrambling is necessarily A′ movement. I argue in this paper that these two apparently inconsistent hypotheses are both necessary for the analysis of scrambling in Japanese.
As evidence for Webelhuth's hypothesis, I show that unlike wh-movement, scrambling need not establish a semantically significant operator-variable relation. Then, I argue that Mahajan's hypothesis, based on the A/A′ dichotomy, is also needed to account for the distinction between clause-internal scrambling and “long distance” scrambling with respect to anaphor binding. Finally, adopting Tada's (1990) proposal that non-operator/non-A positions are licensed at S-structure but not at LF, I suggest that a modified version of Webelhuth's hypothesis applies at S-structure, and Mahajan's hypothesis applies at LF.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aoun, Joseph (1981) The Formal Nature of Anaphoric Relations, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Baltin, Mark R. (1982) “A Landing Site Theory of Movement Rules,” Linguistic Inquiry 13, 1–38.
Barss, Andrew (1986) Chains and Anaphoric Dependence, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Cho, Jai-Hyoung (1990) “Scrambling and Weak Crossover in Korean,“ ms., University of Connecticut.
Chomsky, Noam (1976) “Conditions on Rules of Grammar,” Linguistic Analysis 2, 303–351.
Chomsky, Noam (1977) “On Wh-Movement,” in P. Culicover, T. Wasow, and A. Akmajian (eds.), Formal Syntax, Academic Press, New York.
Chomsky, Noam (1981) Lectures on Government and Binding, Foris Publications, Dordrecht.
Chomsky, Noam (1986a) Barriers, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Chomsky, Noam (1986b) Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin, and Use, Praeger, New York.
Chomsky, Noam (1988) “Some Notes on Economy of Derivation and Representation,” MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 10, pp. 43–74.
Chomsky, Noam and Howard Lasnik (1977) “Filters and Control,” Linguistic Inquiry 8, 425–504.
Deprez, Vivian (1989) On the Typology of Syntactic Positions and the Nature of Chains, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Emonds, Joseph (1978) “The Verbal Complex V′-V in French,” Linguistic Inquiry 9, 151–175.
Farmer, Ann (1980) On the Interaction of Morphology and Syntax, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Fiengo, Robert (1974) Semantic Conditions on Surface Structure, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Fiengo, Robert (1977) “On Trace Theory,” Linguistic Inquiry 8, 35–81.
Fukui, Naoki (1986) A Theory of Category Projection and its Applications, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Guéron, Jacqueline (1984) “Topicalization Structures and Constraints on Coreference,” Lingua 63, 139–174.
Haig, John (1976) “Shadow Pronoun Deletion in Japanese,” Linguistic Inquiry 7, 363–371.
Haik, Isabelle (1983) “On Weak Crossover,” MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 5, 232–242.
Hale, Kenneth (1980) “Remarks on Japanese Phrase Structure: Comments on the Papers on Japanese Syntax,” MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 2,185–203.
Harada, Kazuko I. (1972) “Constraints on WH-Q Binding,” Studies in Descriptive and Applied Linguistics 5, 180–206.
Harada, Shin-Ichi (1977) “Nihongo ni Henkei wa Hituyoo da,” Gengo 6.10, 88–95; 6.11, 96–103.
Hoji, Hajime (1985) Logical Form Constraints and Configurational Structures in Japanese, PhD dissertation, University of Washington.
Hornstein, Norbert (1984) Logic as Grammar, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Huang, C.-T. James (1982) Logical Relations in Chinese and the Theory of Grammar, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Kitagawa, Yoshihisa (1986) Subjects in Japanese and English, PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts.
Kurata, Kiyoshi (1986) “Asymmetries in Japanese,” ms., University of Massachusetts.
Kuroda, S.-Y. (1978) “Case Marking, Canonical Sentence Patterns, and Counter Equi in Japanese,” in J. Hinds and I. Howard (eds.), Problems in Japanese Syntax and Semantics, Kaitakusha, Tokyo.
Kuroda, S.-Y. (1988) “Whether We Agree or Not: A Comparative Syntax of English and Japanese,” Papers from the Second International Workshop on Japanese Syntax, CSLI, Stanford, pp. 103–143.
Lasnik, Howard (1981) “Restricting the Theory of Transformations: A Case Study,” in N. Hornstein and D. Lightfoot (eds.), Explanations in Linguistics: The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition, Longman, London.
Lasnik, Howard and Mamoru Saito (1984) “On the Nature of Proper Government,” Linguistic Inquiry 15, 235–289.
Lasnik, Howard and Mamoru Saito (1990) Move-a, ms., University of Connecticut.
Lasnik, Howard and Tim Stowell (1987) “Weakest Crossover,” ms., University of Connecticut and UCLA.
Lebeaux, David (1988) Language Acquisition and the Form of the Grammar, PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts.
Mahajan, Anoop K. (1989) “On the A/A′ Distinction: Scrambling and Weak Crossover in Hindi,” ms., MIT.
Mahajan, Anoop K. (1990) The A/A-Bar Distinction and Movement Theory, PhD dissertation, MIT.
May, Robert (1977) The Grammar of Quantification, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Miyagawa, Shigaru (1990) “Functional Category and Case Assignment,” ms., Ohio State University.
Nakamura, Masaru (1989) “Reflexives in Japanese,” Gengo Kenkyu 95, 206–230.
Nemoto, Naoko (1991) “On A Movement and Barriers: A Study from the Distribution of A-Scrambling in Japanese,” ms., University of Connecticut.
Oka, Toshifusa (1989) “On the SPEC of IP,” ms., MIT.
Pollock, Jean-Yves (1989) “Verb Movement, Universal Grammar, and the Structure of IP,” Linguistic Inquiry 20, 365–424.
Reinhart, Tanya (1976) The Syntactic Domain of Anaphora, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Riemsdijk, Henk van and Edwin Williams (1981) “NP-Structure,” The Linguistic Review 1, 171–217.
Ross, John R. (1967) Constraints on Variables in Syntax, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Saito, Mamoru (1985) Some Asymmetries in Japanese and their Theoretical Implications, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Saito, Mamoru (1986) “LF Effects of Scrambling,” Workshop on Comparative Grammar, Princeton University.
Saito, Mamoru (1989) “Scrambling as Semantically Vacuous A′-Movement,” in M. Baltin and A. Kroch (eds.), Alternative Conceptions of Phrase Structure, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Saito, Mamoru and Naoki Fukui (1986) “On Kurods's Agreement Parameter,” Workshop on Phrase Structure, New York University.
Saito, Mamoru and Hajime Hoji (1983) “Weak Crossover and Move-α in Japanese,” Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 1, 245–259.
Tada, Hiroaki (1990) “Scrambling(s),” Workshop on Japanese Syntax, Ohio State University.
Ueda, Masanobu (1984) “On the Japanese Reflexive Zibun: A Non-parametrization Approach,” ms., University of Massachusetts.
Ueyama, Ayumi (1990) “Scrambling in Japanese as a Uniform Chain,” Workhop on Scrambling, Tilburg University.
Wasow, Thomas (1972) Anaphoric Relations in English, PhD dissertation, MIT.
Webelhuth, Gert (1989) Syntactic Saturation Phenomena and the Modern Germanic Languages, PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts.
Whitman, John (1982) “Configurationality Parameters,” ms., Harvard University.
Yang, Dong-Whee (1984) “The Extended Binding Theory of Anaphors,” Theoretical Linguistics Research 1, 195–218.
Yoshimura, Noriko (1989) “Parasitic Pronouns,” Southern California Conference on Japanese/Korean Linguistics, UCLA.
About this article
Cite this article
Saito, M. Long distance scrambling in Japanese. J East Asian Linguis 1, 69–118 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00129574
- Theoretical Language
- Anaphor Binding
- Inconsistent Hypothesis