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A genetic algorithm for flexible molecular overlay and pharmacophore elucidation

Summary

A genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed for the superimposition of sets of flexible molecules. Molecules are represented by a chromosome that encodes angles of rotation about flexible bonds and mappings between hydrogen-bond donor proton, acceptor lone pair and ring centre features in pairs of molecules. The molecule with the smallest number of features in the data set is used as a template, onto which the remaining molecules are fitted with the objective of maximising structural equivalences. The fitness function of the GA is a weighted combination of: (i) the number and the similarity of the features that have been overlaid in this way; (ii) the volume integral of the overlay; and (iii) the van der Waals energy of the molecular conformations defined by the torsion angles encoded in the chromosomes. The algorithm has been applied to a number of pharmacophore elucidation problems, i.e., angiotensin II receptor antagonists, Leu-enkephalin and a hybrid morphine molecule, 5-HT1D agonists, benzodiazepine receptor ligands, 5-HT3 antagonists, dopamine D2 antagonists, dopamine reuptake blockers and FKBP12 ligands. The resulting pharmacophores are generated rapidly and are in good agreement with those derived from alternative means.

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Jones, G., Willett, P. & Glen, R.C. A genetic algorithm for flexible molecular overlay and pharmacophore elucidation. J Computer-Aided Mol Des 9, 532–549 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00124324

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00124324

Keywords

  • Genetic algorithm
  • Flexible conformational search
  • Superimposition