Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 93–101 | Cite as

Improvement of field sampling methods for adult Karoo paralysis ticks, Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae), through addition of host odour

  • L. J. Fourie
  • F. van der Lingen
  • D. J. Kok
Article

Abstract

The responsiveness of Ixodes rubicundus ticks on questing substrates and the success of their attachment to non-living substrates were investigated. The purpose of this study was to relate responsiveness to conditions of temperature and humidity, to compare the efficacy of flagging and dragging methods to estimate the size of populations of adult I. rubicundus in the field, and to determine the possible influence of host odour on the efficacy of these methods. Responsiveness was tested under varying conditions of temperature and humidity under field conditions, and the same ticks were used to determine the duration of attachment to a flannel cloth, either impregnated with host odour from sheep wool or without it. Flagging and dragging methods were compared under laboratory conditions with cloths either treated with host odour or not. Within the range of ambient temperatures recorded during this study (7–25°C) most of the ticks (86%) were responsive. No obvious relationship between temperature, relative humidity and responsiveness of ticks was evident. Ticks remained on average 32.9 seconds (n=64) on cloth treated with host odour compared to 9.1 seconds (n=54) on untreated cloth. Flagging was 1.5–1.7 times as effective as dragging and treatment of the cloths with host odour increased the efficacy 2.4 (dragging) to 2.8 (flagging) times. The reactions of ticks to external stimuli should, therefore, be taken into account to maximize field sampling success.

Key words

Karoo paralysis tick Ixodes rubicundus field sampling South Africa 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balashov, Y.S., 1972. Bloodsucking ticks (Ixodoidea): Vectors of diseases of man and animals. Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am., 8: 376p.Google Scholar
  2. Elizarov, Y.A. and Vasewta, A.A., 1976. A distant orientation of blood-sucking ixodid ticks to the host's attractant factors. Parazit. Sb., 10: 136–141 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  3. El Ziady, S., 1958. The behaviour of Ornithodoros erraticus (Lucas, 1849), small form (Ixodiodea, Argasidae) towards certain environmental factors. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 51: 317–336.Google Scholar
  4. Falco, R.C. and Fish, D., 1991. Horizontal movement of adult Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) attracted to CO2-baited traps. J. Med. Entomol., 28: 726–729.Google Scholar
  5. Fourie, L.J. and Horak, I.G., 1994. The life cycle of Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) and its adaptations to a hot, dry environment. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 18: 23–35.Google Scholar
  6. Fourie, L.J. Kok, O.B. and Van Zyl, J.M., 1991. Spatial distribution of the Karoo paralysis tick Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) within a false upper Karoo veld type. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 11: 37–49.Google Scholar
  7. Fourie, L.J. and Kok, O.B., 1992. The role of host behaviour in tick-host interactions: a domestic host-paralysis tick model. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 13: 213–225.Google Scholar
  8. Fourie, L.J., Petney, T.N., Horak, I.G. and De Jager, C., 1989. Seasonal incidence of Karoo paralysis in relation to the infestation density of female Ixodes rubicundus. Vet. Parasitol., 33: 319–328.Google Scholar
  9. Fourie, L.J., Snyman, A., Kok, D.J., Horak, I.G. and Van Zyl, J.M., 1993. The appetence behaviour of two South African paralyis-inducing ixodid ticks. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 17: 921–930.Google Scholar
  10. Goddard, J., 1992. Ecological studies of adult Ixodes scapularis in central Mississippi: questing activity in relation to time of year, vegetation type, and meteorologic conditions. J. Med. Entomol., 29: 501–506.Google Scholar
  11. Gray, J.S., 1985. A carbon dioxide trap for prolonged sampling of Ixodes ricinus L. populations. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 1: 35–44.Google Scholar
  12. Harlan, H.J. and Foster, W.A., 1990. Micrometeorologic factors affecting field host-seeking activity of adult Dermacentor variabilis. J. Med. Entomol., 27: 471–479.Google Scholar
  13. Lees, A.D., 1948. The sensory physiology of the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus. L.J. Exp. Biol., 25: 145–207.Google Scholar
  14. Lees, A.D., 1969. The behaviour and physiology of ticks. In: T.E. Hughes (Chm.) Symposium on physiology in relation to behaviour. Acarol., 6: 397–410.Google Scholar
  15. Loye, J.E. and Lane, R.S., 1988. Questing behaviour of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in relation to meteorological and seasonal factors. J. Med. Entomol., 25: 391–398.Google Scholar
  16. Norval, R.A.I., Yunker, C.E. and Butler, J.F., 1987. Field sampling of unfed adults of Amblyomma hebraeum Koch. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 3: 213–217.Google Scholar
  17. Norval, R.A.I., Butler, J.F. and Yunker, C.E., 1989. Use of carbon dioxide and natural or synthetic aggregation-attachment pheromone of the Bont tick, Amblyomma hebraeum, to attract and trap unfed adults in the field. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 7: 171–180.Google Scholar
  18. Snyman, A., Fourie, L.J., Kok, D.J. and Horak, I.G., 1994. Vertical migration of adult Ixodes rubicundus, the Karoo paralysis tick (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol., 18: 101–110.Google Scholar
  19. Spickett, A.M. and Heyne, H., 1988. A survey of Karoo tick paralysis in South Africa. Onderstepoort. J. Vet. Res., 55: 89–92.Google Scholar
  20. Stampa, S., 1959. Tick paralysis in the Karoo areas of South Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 28: 169–227.Google Scholar
  21. Steullet, P. and Guerin, P.M., 1994a. Identification of vertebrate volatiles stimulating olfactory receptors on tarsus I of the tick Amblyomma variegatum, Fabricius (Ixodidae): I. Receptors within the Haller's organ capsule. J. comp. Physiol., A, 174: 27–38.Google Scholar
  22. Steullet, P. and Guerin, P.M., 1994b. Identification of vertebrate volatiles stimulating olfactory receptors on tarsus I of the tick Amblyomma variegatum, Fabricius (Ixodidae): II. Receptors outside the Haller's organ capsule. J. Comp. Physiol., A, 174: 39–47.Google Scholar
  23. Uspensky, I., 1993. Ability of successful attack in two species of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) as a manifestation of their aggressiveness. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 17: 673–683.Google Scholar
  24. Waladde, S.M. and Rice, M.J., 1982. The sensory basis of tick feeding behaviour. In: F.D. Oberchain and R. Galun (eds.). Physiology of Ticks. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 71–118.Google Scholar
  25. Wilson, J.G., Kinzer, D.R., Sauer, J.R. and Hair, J.A., 1972. Chemo-attraction in the lone star tick (Acarina: Ixodidae). I. Response of different development stages to carbon dioxide administered via traps. J. Med. Entomol., 9: 245–252.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. J. Fourie
    • 1
  • F. van der Lingen
    • 1
  • D. J. Kok
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology and EntomologyUniversity of the OFSBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations