Advertisement

Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 11–18 | Cite as

Repellent and acaricidal properties of Ocimum suave against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks

  • Esther N. Mwangi
  • Ahmed Hassanali
  • Suliman Essuman
  • Edward Myandat
  • Lambert Moreka
  • Mark Kimondo
Article

Abstract

An oil extracted from the leaves of a tropical shrub Ocimum suave was found to repel as well as kill all stages of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. In an in vitro bioassay for the larvae, the LC50 of the oil in liquid paraffin was 0.024%. A 10% solution was found to kill all immatures and more than 70% of adults feeding on rabbits. Rabbits were protected for 5 days against attaching larvae using a 10% solution. Preliminary experiments undertaken with cattle kept in the field suggest that the oil may have potential in tick control, and a role in integrated tick management.

Key words

Natural products Ocimum suave acaricides Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick control 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Burg, R.W., Miller, B.M., Baker, E.E., Birnbaum, J., Curie, S.A., Hartman, R., Kang, Y.L., Monaghan, R.L., Olson, G., Putter, I., Tunac, J.B., Wallick, H., Stapley, E.O., Oiwa, R. and Omura, S., 1979. Avermectins, new family of potent antihelmintic agents: producing organism and fermentation. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 15: 361–367.Google Scholar
  2. Chema, S., 1984. Public sector responsibility in tick control programme. In: FAO seminar on African Centres for Tick and Tick-borne Disease control, p. 11.Google Scholar
  3. Chogo, J.B. and Crank, G., 1981. Chemical composition and biological activity of the Tanzanian plant Ocimum suave. J. Nat. Prod., 44: 308–311.Google Scholar
  4. Cremlyn, R., 1978. Pesticides, preparation and mode of action. J Wiley and Sons, New York. pp. 39–49.Google Scholar
  5. Dipeolu, O.O., 1991. Current approach to control of ticks on livestock at the ICIPE, Kenya. In: F.Dusbabek, and Bukva, V. (eds), Modern Acarology, 1: 219–228. Academia, Prague.Google Scholar
  6. Dipeolu, O.O. and Ndungu, J.N., 1991. Acaricidal activity of Kupetaba, a ground mixture of natural products, against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Vet. Parasitol., 38: 327–338.Google Scholar
  7. FAO Report, 1984. Acaricide resistance. In: Ticks and tick-borne disease control. A practical field manual Volume 1: 246–299.Google Scholar
  8. Hassanali, A., Lwande, W., Ole-Sitayo, N. and Moreka, L., Nokoe, S. and Chapya, A., 1990. Weevil repellent constituents of Ocimum suave leaves and Eugenia caryophyllata cloves used as grain protectants in parts of Eastern Africa. Discovery and Innovation, 2: 91–95.Google Scholar
  9. Kokwaro, J.O., 1976. Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi. East African Literature Bureau.Google Scholar
  10. Malonza, M.M., Dipeolu, O.O., Amoo, A.O. and Hassan, S.M., 1992. Laboratory and field observation on anti-tick properties of the plant Gynandropsis gynandra L. Brig. Vet. Parasitol., 42: 123–136.Google Scholar
  11. Matthewson, M.D., 1984. The future of tick control: A review of the chemical and non-chemical options. Preven. Vet. Med., 2: 559–568.Google Scholar
  12. Niyonzema, A. and Kiltz, H.H., 1986. Control of ticks and tick-borne diseases in Burundi. In: Sutherst, R. (Editor), Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. Proceedings of an International Workshop on the Ecology of Ticks and Epidemiology of Tick-borne Diseases, Zimbabwe. ACIAR Proc. No. 17 pp. 16–17.Google Scholar
  13. Pegram, R.G., Chizyuka, H.G.B., Mwase, E.T. and Zekle, Z., 1988. Production economics in worldwide animal commodities subject to disease transmission and infestation by acarines: The economic impact of cattle tick control in Central Africal Paper presented at the National Symposium on Theileriosis, 17–19 October 1988, Lusaka, Zambia.Google Scholar
  14. Simpkin, J and Galun, R., 1983. Microencapsulated natural pyrethrum—an improved repellent. In: Whitehead, D.L. and Bowers, W. (eds) Natural Products for Innovative Pest Management. Pergamon Press, pp. 151–164.Google Scholar
  15. Stone, B.F. and Haydock, K.P., 1962. A method for measuring the acaricide susceptibility of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Can.). Bul. Entomol. Res., 53: 563–578.Google Scholar
  16. Sutherst, R.W., Jones, R.J. and Schnitzerling, H.J., 1982. Tropical legumes of the genus Stylosanthes immobilize and kill cattle ticks. Nature (London), 295: 320–321.Google Scholar
  17. Sutherst, R.W. and Wilson, L.J., 1986. Tropical legumes and their ability to immobilize and kill cattle ticks. In: Juniper, B.C. and Southwood, T.R.E. (eds) Insects and the plant surface, pp. 185–194.Google Scholar
  18. Sutherst, R.W., Wilson, L.J., Reid, R. and Kerr, J.D., 1988. A survey of the ability of tropical legumes in the genus Stylosanthes to trap larvae of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). Austr. J. Exp. Agric., 28: 473–479.Google Scholar
  19. Thompson, K.C., Roa, E.J. and Romero, N.T., 1978. Anti-tick grasses as the basis for developing practical tropical tick control package. Trop. Amin. Health Prod., 10: 179–182.Google Scholar
  20. Watt, J.M. and Brever-Brandwijk, M.G., 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. London: E. and S. Livingstone Ltd, pp. 35–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esther N. Mwangi
    • 1
  • Ahmed Hassanali
    • 1
  • Suliman Essuman
    • 1
  • Edward Myandat
    • 1
  • Lambert Moreka
    • 1
  • Mark Kimondo
    • 1
  1. 1.The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICPE)NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations