Skip to main content
Log in

Antifeedant effects of in vitro culture extracts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica against the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål))

  • Original Research Paper
  • Published:
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Callus and micropropagated shoots were initiated from leaf explants of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. A variety of whole plant and in vitro cell cultures from neem seedlings of Ghanian origin were tested for insect antifeedant compounds using the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål)). Feeding suppression occurred when whole extracts of seed, leaf, callus, suspension and shoot cultures were tested in no-choice feeding bioassays. Controls of sucrose, carrot callus and the plant growth medium showed no feeding deterrence. Azadirachtin, the main known antifeedant in neem seed kernels, was quantified from a seed extract by HPLC but was not detected in any of the other extracts. Antifeedancy was determined during batch growth of a suspension culture which had been in culture for 5 months; results indicated that antifeedants were still being formed and that levels increased after maximum biomass was attained.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Govindachari TR, Sandhya G & Ganeshraj SP (1990) Simple method for the isolation of azadirachtin by preparative HPLC. J. Chromat. 513: 389–391

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis AC & van Emden HF (1986) Assays for insect feeding. In: Miller KR & Miller TA (Ed) Insect-Plant Interactions (pp 95–119). Springer Verlag, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Mordue(Luntz) A J & Blackwell A (1993) Azadirachtin: An Update. J. Insect Physiol. 39: 903–942

    Google Scholar 

  • Mordue(Luntz) A J & Nasiruddin M (1992) Azadirachtin treatment and host plant selection. In: Menken SBJ, Visser JH & Harrewijn P (Eds) Insect—Plant Relationships, Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium (pp 176–178). Kluwer Academic Publications, Dordrecht, The Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  • Murashige T & Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco cultures. Physiol. Plant 15: 473–479

    Google Scholar 

  • Nasiruddin M (1993) The effects of azadirachtin and analogues upon feeding and development in locusts. PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen

  • National Research Council (1992) Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems. National Academy Press, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramesh K & Padhya MA (1988) Isolation of nimbin from Azadirachta indica leaves and its callus cultures. Indian Drugs 25 (12): 526–527

    Google Scholar 

  • Saxena RC (1989) Insecticides from neem. In: Arnason J T, Philogene B J R & Morand P (Eds) Insecticides of Plant Origin (pp 110–135). American Chemical Society, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanyal M, Das A, Banerjee M & Datta PC (1981) In vitro hormone induced chemical and histological differentiation in stem callus of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 19: 1067–1068

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultz FA (1984) Tissue culture of Azadirachta indica. In: Schmutterer H & Ascher KRS (Eds) Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and other Tropical Plants, Proceedings of the Second International Neem Conference (pp 539–542). GTZ, Eschborn, Germany

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kearney, ML., Allan, E.J., Hooker, J.E. et al. Antifeedant effects of in vitro culture extracts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica against the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål)). Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 37, 67–71 (1994).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words