, Volume 223, Issue 1, pp 255–282 | Cite as

Precopulatory mating behavior and sexual dimorphism in the amphipod Crustacea

  • Kathleen E. Conlan


Accounts in the literature of precopulatory mate-guarding in gammaridean amphipods are that males use one of two strategies for mating: either they mate-guard by carrying or attending their mates until they are ready to molt and be fertilized, or they do not guard, instead searching benthically or swarming pelagically at the time that females are ready to molt. Mate-guarding by carrying has been documented for species of the superfamilies Gammaroidea, Talitroidea, and Hadzioidea. Mate-guarding by attending has been found in the more sedentary Corophioidea and Caprellidea. Non-mate-guarders that search pelagically are species of Ampeliscoidea, Lysianassoidea, Phoxocephaloidea, Oedicerotoidea, and Pontoporeioidea. Non-mate-guarders that mate-search benthically are species of Eusiroidea, Crangonyctoidea, and Haustorioidea. Mate-guarding and non-mate-guarding males develop different secondary sex characters at maturity. Mate-guarding males have enhancements for fighting and signalling. These alterations are more elaborate in males that attend their mates than in males that carry their mates. Non-mate-guarders that search pelagically develop enhancements for swimming and sensing. Non-mate-guarders that remain benthic exhibit little change at maturity. Most mate-guarding males develop their secondary sexual characters over several molts and mate over more than one instar. Pelagic mate-searchers develop their secondary sexual characters at the last molt and mating is confined to the last instar. Females of most mate-guarding species are iteroparous, while fewer than half of non-mate-guarding species are so. It is hypothesized that mate-guarding arose more than once in the evolutionary history of amphipod Crustacea.

Key words

mating behavior sexual dimorphism amphipods 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, J. & P. J. Greenwood, 1983. Why are males bigger than females in pre-copula pairs of Gammarus pulex? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 13: 239–241.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, J. & P. J. Greenwood, 1985. Environmental constraints on mate choice in Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda). Crustaceana 50: 45–51.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, J. & P. J. Greenwood, 1987. Loading constraints, sexual selection and assortative mating in peracarid Crustacea. J. Zool., Lond. 211: 35–46.Google Scholar
  4. Ahsanullah, M. & A. R. Williams, 1986. Effect of uranium on growth and reproduction of the marine amphipod Allorchestes compressa. Mar. Biol. 93: 459–464.Google Scholar
  5. Alcock, J., 1989. Animal behavior. Fourth edition. Sinauer Assoc., Mass. 596 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Ali, M. H. & S. D. Salman, 1986. The reproductive biology of Parhyale basrensis Salman (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the Shatt al-Arab River. Estuar. coast Shelf Sci. 23: 339–351.Google Scholar
  7. Barrett, B. E., 1966. A contribution to the knowledge of the amphipodous crustacean Ampithoe valida Smith 1873. Ph.D. thesis, University of New Hampshire.Google Scholar
  8. Behbehani, M. I., 1978. Studies on the ecology of Orchestia platensis Kroyer 1845 (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Ph.D. thesis, University of New Hampshire. 131 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Birkhead, T. R. & K. Clarkson, 1980. Mate selection and precopulatory guarding in Gammarus pulex. Z. Tierpsychol. 52: 365–380.Google Scholar
  10. Blegvad, H., 1922. On the biology of some Danish gammarids and mysids (Gammarus locusta, Mysis flexuosa, Mysis neglecta, Mysis inermis). Rep. Dan. biol. Sta. 28: 1–103.Google Scholar
  11. Borowsky, B., 1980a. Reproductive patterns of three intertidal salt-marsh gammaridean amphipods. Mar. Biol. 55: 327–334.Google Scholar
  12. Borowsky, B., 1980b. The pattern of tube-sharing in Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Anim. Behav. 28: 790–797.Google Scholar
  13. Borowsky, B., 1983. Reproductive behavior of three tube-building peracarid crustaceans: the amphipods Jassa falcata and Ampithoe valida and the tanaid Tanais cavolinii. Mar. Biol. 77: 257–263.Google Scholar
  14. Borowsky, B., 1984a. Effects of receptive females' secretions on some male reproductive behaviors in the amphipod crustacean Microdeutopus gryllotalpa. Mar. Biol. 84: 183–187.Google Scholar
  15. Borowsky, B., 1984b. The use of the males' gnathopods during precopulation in some gammaridean amphipods. Crustaceana 47: 245–250.Google Scholar
  16. Borowsky, B., 1985. Differences in reproductive behavior between two male morphs of the amphipod crustacean Jassa falcata Montagu. Physiol. Zool. 58: 497–502.Google Scholar
  17. Borowsky, B., 1986. Laboratory observations of the pattern of reproduction of Elasmopus levis (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Mar. Behav. Physiol. 12: 245–256.Google Scholar
  18. Borowsky, B., 1988. Delaying copulation in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus palustris: effects on female fecundity and consequences for the frequency of amplexus. Mar. Behav. Physiol. 13: 359–368.Google Scholar
  19. Borowsky, B., 1989. The effects of residential tubes on reproductive behaviors in Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Costa) (Crustacea: Amphipoda). J. Exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 128: 117–125.Google Scholar
  20. Borowsky, B., C. A. Augelli & S. R. Wilson, 1987. Towards chemical characterization of waterborne pheromone of amphipod crustacean Microdeutopus gryllotalpa. J. Chem. Ecol. 13: 1673–1680.Google Scholar
  21. Borowsky, B. & R. Borowsky, 1987. The reproductive behaviors of the amphipod crustacean Gammarus palustris (Bousfield) and some insights into the nature of their stimuli. J. Exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 107: 131–144.Google Scholar
  22. Bousfield, E. L., 1958. Fresh-water amphipod crustaceans of glaciated North America. Can. Field-Nat. 72: 55–113.Google Scholar
  23. Bousfield, E. L., 1973. Shallow-water gammaridean Amphipoda of New England. Cornell University Press. 312 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Bousfield, E. L., 1979. A revised classification and phylogeny of amphipod crustaceans. Trans. r. Soc. Can. 16: 343–390.Google Scholar
  25. Bousfield, E. L., 1982a. Amphipoda, Gammaridea, and Ingolfiellidea. In S. B. Parker (ed), Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. Vol. 2. McGraw-Hill, New York: 254–294.Google Scholar
  26. Bousfield, E. L., 1982b. The amphipod superfamily Talitroidea in the northeastern Pacific region. I. Family Talitridae: systematics and distributional ecology. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Biol. Oceanogr. 11: 1–73.Google Scholar
  27. Bousfield, E. L., 1983. An updated phyletic classification and palaeohistory of the Amphipoda. In F. Schram (ed), Crustacean Phylogeny. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam: 257–277.Google Scholar
  28. Bousfield, E. L., 1988. Ordered character states as a basis for phyletic classification within the Amphipoda. Abstract. Crustaceana, Supplement 13: 279–280.Google Scholar
  29. Bousfield, E. L., 1989. Revised morphological relationships within the amphipod genera Pontoporeia and Gammaracanthus and the ‘glacial relict’ significance of their postglacial distributions. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 46: 1714–1725.Google Scholar
  30. Bowers, D. E., 1964. Natural history of two beach hoppers of the genus Orchestoidea (Crustacea: Amphipoda) with reference to their complemental distribution. Ecology 45: 677–696.Google Scholar
  31. Bregazzi, P. K., 1972. Life cycles and seasonal movements of Cheirimedon femoratus (Pfeffer) and Tryphosella kergueleni (Miers) (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Br. Antarct. Surv. Bull. 30: 1–34.Google Scholar
  32. Campbell-Parmentier, F., 1963. Vitellogenèse, maturation des ovocytes, accouplement et ponte en relation avec l'intermue chez Orchestia gammarella Pallas (Crustacé amphipode Talitridae). Bull. Soc. zool. Fr. 88: 474–488.Google Scholar
  33. Clarke, A., A. Skadsheim & L. J. Holmes, 1985. Lipid biochemistry and reproductive biology in two species of Gammaridae (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Mar. Biol. 88: 247–263.Google Scholar
  34. Clemens, H. P., 1950. Life cycle and ecology of Gammarus fasciatus Say. Franz Theodore Stone Institute of Hydrobiology, Ohio State University, Contribution 12. 63 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Conlan, K. E., 1982. The amphipod superfamily Corophioidea in the northeastern Pacific region. Family Ampithoidea: systematics and distributional ecology. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Biol. Oceanogr. 10: 41–75.Google Scholar
  36. Conlan, K. E., 1983. The amphipod superfamily Corophioidea in the northeastern Pacific region. 3. Family Isaeidae: systematics and distributional ecology. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. (Ottawa) Publ. Nat. Sci. 4: 1–75.Google Scholar
  37. Conlan, K. E., 1989. Delayed reproduction and adult dimorphism in males of the amphipod genus Jassa (Corophioidea: Ischyroceridae): an explanation for systematic confusion. J. Crust. Biol. 9: 601–625.Google Scholar
  38. Conlan, K. E., 1990. Revision of the crustacean amphipod genus Jassa Leach (Corophioidea: Iscyroceridae). Can. J. Zool. 10: 2031–2075.Google Scholar
  39. Connell, J. H., 1963. Territorial behavior and dispersion in some marine invertebrates. Res. Popul. Ecol. 5: 87–101.Google Scholar
  40. Cooper, W. E., 1965. Dynamics and production of a natural population of a fresh-water amphipod, Hyalella azteca. Ecol. Monogr. 35: 377–393.Google Scholar
  41. Crawford, G. I., 1937. A review of the amphipod genus Corophium, with notes on the British species. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 21: 589–630.Google Scholar
  42. Crozier, W. J. & L. H. Snyder, 1923. Selective coupling of gammarids. Biol. Bull. 45: 97–104.Google Scholar
  43. Dahl, E., H. Emanuelsson & C. Von Mecklenburg, 1970. Pheromone reception in the males of the amphipod Gammarus duebeni Lilljeborg. Oikos 21: 42–47.Google Scholar
  44. De March, B. G. E., 1977. The effects of photoperiod and temperature on the induction and termination of reproductive resting stage in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca (Saussure). Can. J. Zool. 55: 1595–1600.Google Scholar
  45. De March, B. G. E., 1978. The effects of constant and variable temperatures on the size, growth, and reproduction of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca (Saussure). Can. J. Zool. 56: 1801–1806.Google Scholar
  46. De March, B. G. E., 1982. Decreased day length and light intensity as factors inducing reproduction in Gammarus lacustris lacustris Sars. Can. J. Zool. 60: 2962–2965.Google Scholar
  47. Dick, J. T. A. & R. W. Elwood, 1989. Assessments and decisions during mate choice in Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda). Behaviour 109: 235–246.Google Scholar
  48. Dick, J. T. A., D. E. Irvine & R. W. Elwood, 1990. Differential predation by males on moulted females may explain the competitive displacement of Gammarus duebeni by G. pulex (Amphipoda). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 26: 41–45.Google Scholar
  49. Dieleman, J., 1979. Swimming rhythms, migration and breeding cycles in the estuarine amphipods Gammarus chevreuxi and Gammarus zaddachi. In Naylor, E. & R. G. Hartnoll (eds), Cyclic phenomena in marine plants and animals, Proc. 13th Europ. Mar. Biol. Symp. Pergamon Press, Oxford: 415–422.Google Scholar
  50. Donn, T. E., Jr. & R. A. Croker, 1985. Life-history patterns of Haustorius canadensis (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in northern New England. Can. J. Zool. 64: 99–104.Google Scholar
  51. Downer, D. F. & D. H. Steele, 1979. Some aspects of the biology of Amphiporeia lawrenciana Shoemaker (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in Newfoundland waters. Can. J. Zool. 57: 257–263.Google Scholar
  52. Dunham, P. J., 1986. Mate guarding in amphipods: a role for brood pouch stimuli. Biol. Bull. 170: 526–531.Google Scholar
  53. Dunham, P. J., T. Alexander & A. Hurshman, 1986. Precopulatory mate guarding in an amphipod, Gammarus lawrencianus Bousfield. Anim. Behav. 34: 1680–1686.Google Scholar
  54. Dunham, P. J. & A. Hurshman, 1988. Amphipod mate guarding decisions: deprivation versus uncertainty. Anim. Behav. 36: 609–611.Google Scholar
  55. Elwood, R., J. Gibson & S. Neil, 1987. The amorous Gammarus: size assortative mating in G. pulex. Anim. Behav. 35: 1–6.Google Scholar
  56. Embody, G. C., 1911. A preliminary study of the distribution, food and reproductive capacity of some fresh-water amphipods. Biol. Suppl. 3: 1–33.Google Scholar
  57. Fenwick, G. D., 1985. Life-histories of four co-occurring amphipods from a shallow, sand bottom at Kaikoura, New Zealand. N.Z. J. Zool. 12: 71–105.Google Scholar
  58. Fincham, A. A., 1970. Amphipods in the surf plankton. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 50: 177–198.Google Scholar
  59. Fincham, A. A., 1974. Periodic swimming behaviour of amphipods in Wellington Harbour. N.Z. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 8: 505–521.Google Scholar
  60. Fish, J. D. 1975. Development, hatching and brood size in Bathyporeia pilosa and B. pelagica (Crustacea: Amphipoda). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 55: 357–368.Google Scholar
  61. Fish, J. D. & A. Mills, 1979. The reproductive biology of Corophium volutator and C. arenarium (Crustacea: Amphipoda). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 59: 355–368.Google Scholar
  62. Fish, J. D. & G. S. Preece, 1970. The annual reproductive patterns of Bathyporeia pilosa and Bathyporeia pelagica (Crustacea: Amphipoda). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 50: 475–488.Google Scholar
  63. Fong, D. W., 1989. Morphological evolution of the amphipod Gammarus minus in caves: quantitative genetic analysis. Am. Midl. Nat. 121: 361–378.Google Scholar
  64. Franz, D. R., 1989. Population density and demography of a fouling community amphipod. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 125: 117–136.Google Scholar
  65. Fredette, T. J. & R. J. Diaz, 1986. Life history of Gammarus mucronatus Say (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) in warm temperate estuarine habitats, York River, Virginia. J. Crustacean Biol. 6: 57–78.Google Scholar
  66. Gable, M. F. & R. A. Croker, 1977. The salt marsh amphipod, Gammarus palustris Bousfield, 1969 at the northern limit of its distribution. Estuar. Coast. mar. Sci. 5: 123–134.Google Scholar
  67. Ginet, R., 1967. Ecologie, éthologie et biologie de Niphargus (Amphipodes Gammarides hypogés). Ann. Spéléol. 15: 127–376.Google Scholar
  68. Goodhart, C. B., 1939. Notes on the bionomics of the tube-building amphipod, Leptocheirus pilosus Zaddach. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 23: 311–325.Google Scholar
  69. Greenwood, P. J. & J. Adams, 1984. Sexual dimorphism in Gammarus pulex: the effect of current flow on pre-copula pair formation. Freshwat. Biol. 14: 203–209.Google Scholar
  70. Greenwood, P. J. & J. Adams, 1987. Sexual selection, size dimorphism and a fallacy. Oikos 48: 106–108.Google Scholar
  71. Hamashima, W. & H. Morino, 1984.Experimental studies on the growth, survival, and breeding activities of Jesogammarus paucisetulosus Morino at different temperatures. Publ. Itako Hydrobiol. Stn. 1: 25–38.Google Scholar
  72. Harrison, R. J., 1940. On the biology of the Caprellidae. Growth and moulting of Pseudoprotella phasma Montagu. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 24: 483–493.Google Scholar
  73. Hartnoll, R. G. & S. M. Smith, 1978. Pair formation and the reproductive cycle in Gammarus duebenii. J. nat. Hist. 12: 501–511.Google Scholar
  74. Hartnoll, R. G. & S. M. Smith, 1980. An experimental study of sex discrimination and pair formation in Gammarus duebenii (Amphipoda). Crustaceana 38: 253–264.Google Scholar
  75. Heller, S. P., 1968. Some aspects of the biology and development of Ampithoe lacertosa (Crustacea: Amphipoda). M.Sc. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle. 132 pp.Google Scholar
  76. Hiwatari, T. & T. Kajihara, 1988. Experimental studies on the growth and breeding of Hyale barbicornis (Amphipoda, Crustacea) at different temperatures. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 54: 39–43.Google Scholar
  77. Hughes, R. G., 1988. Dispersal by benthic invertebrates: the in situ swimming behaviour of the amphipod Corophium volutator. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 68: 565–579.Google Scholar
  78. Hunte, W. & R. A. Myers, 1988. Male investment time and mating decisions in amphipods: uncertainty or deprivation? Anim. Behav. 36: 608–609.Google Scholar
  79. Hunte, W., R. A. Myers & R. W. Doyle, 1985. Bayesian mating decisions in an amphipod, Gammarus lawrencianus Bousfield. Anim. Behav. 33: 366–372.Google Scholar
  80. Hurley, D. E., 1968. Transition from water to land in amphipod crustaceans. Am. Zool. 8: 327–353.Google Scholar
  81. Hynes, H. B. N., 1954. The ecology of Gammarus duebeni Lilljeborg and its occurrence in fresh water in western Britain. J. anim. Ecol. 23: 38–84.Google Scholar
  82. Hynes, H. B. N., 1955. The reproductive cycle of some British freshwater Gammaridae. J. anim. Ecol. 24: 352–387.Google Scholar
  83. Hynes, H. B. N. & F. Harper, 1971. The life histories of Gammarus lacustris and G. pseudolimnaeus in southern Ontario. Crustaceana Suppl. 3: 329–341.Google Scholar
  84. Jenio, F., 1980. The life cycle and ecology of Gammarus troglophilus (Hubricht & Mackin). Crustaceana Suppl. 6: 204–215.Google Scholar
  85. Jones, R. & D. C. Culver, 1989. Evidence for selection on sensory structures in a cave population of Gammarus minus (Amphipoda). Evolution 43: 688–693.Google Scholar
  86. Jones, D. A., N. Peacock & O. F. M. Phillips, 1973. Studies on the migration of Tritaeta gibbosa, a subtidal benthic amphipod. Neth. J. Sea Res. 7: 135–149.Google Scholar
  87. Just, J., 1988. Siphonoecetinae (Corophiidae) 6: a survey of phylogeny, distribution, and biology. Crustaceana Suppl. 13: 193–208.Google Scholar
  88. Kamihira, Y., 1981. Life history of sand-burrowing amphipod Haustorioides japonicus (Crustacea: Dogielinotidae). Bull. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 32: 338–348.Google Scholar
  89. Kanneworff, E., 1965. Life cycle, food, and growth of the amphipod Ampelisca macrocephala Liljeborg from the Oresund. Ophelia 2: 305–318.Google Scholar
  90. Kemp, P. F., F. A. Cole & R. C. Swartz, 1985. Life history and productivity of the phoxocephalid amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius (Barnard). J. Crustacean Biol. 5: 449–464.Google Scholar
  91. Kinne, O., 1959. Ecological data on the amphipod Gammarus duebeni. A monograph. Verëff. Inst. Meeresforsch. Bremerh. 6: 177–202.Google Scholar
  92. Kostalos, M. S., 1979. Life history and ecology of Gammarus minus Say (Amphipoda. Gammaridae). Crustaceana 37: 113–122.Google Scholar
  93. Krishnan, L. & P. A. John, 1974. Observations on the breeding biology of Melita zeylanica Stebbing, a brackish water amphipod. Hydrobiologia 44: 413–430.Google Scholar
  94. Lakshmana Rao, M. V. & K. Shyamasundari, 1963. Tube-building habits of the fouling amphipod Corophium triaenonyx Stebbing at Visakhapatnam Harbour. J. zool. Soc. India 15: 133–140.Google Scholar
  95. Laubitz, D. R. & G. S. Lewbel, 1974. A new species of caprellid (Crustacea: Amphipoda) associated with gorgonian octocorals. Can. J. Zool. 52: 549–551.Google Scholar
  96. Levings, C. D., 1980. The biology and energetics of Eogammarus confervicolus (Stimpson) (Amphipoda, Anisogammaridae) at the Squamish River Estuary, B.C. Can. J. Zool. 58: 1652–1663.Google Scholar
  97. Lewbel, G. S., 1978. Sexual dimorphism and intraspecific aggression, and their relationship to sex ratios in Caprella gorgonia Laubitz & Lewbel (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae). J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 33: 133–151.Google Scholar
  98. Lim, K. H. & W. D. Williams, 1971. Ecology of Austrochiltonia subtenuis (Sayce) (Amphipoda, Hyalellidae). Crustaceana 20: 19–24.Google Scholar
  99. Lincoln, R. H., 1979. British marine Amphipoda: Gammaridea. British Museum (Natural History). 658 pp.Google Scholar
  100. Lowry, J. K., 1986. The callynophore, a eucaridan/peracaridan sensory organ prevalent among the Amphipoda (Crustacea). Zool. Scr. 15: 333–349.Google Scholar
  101. Lowry, J. K. & H. E. Stoddart, 1983. The amphipod genus Parawaldeckia in New Zealand waters (Crustacea, Lysianassoidea). J. R. Soc. N.Z. 13: 261–277.Google Scholar
  102. Lyes, M. C., 1979. The reproductive behaviour of Gammarus duebeni (Lilljeborg), and the inhibitory effect of a surface agent. Mar. Behav. Physiol. 6: 47–55.Google Scholar
  103. Mattson, S. & T. Cedhagen, 1989. Aspects of the behaviour and ecology of Dyopedos monacanthus (Metzger) and D. porrectus Bate, with comparative notes on Dulichia tuberculata Boeck (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Podoceridae). J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 127: 253–272.Google Scholar
  104. Menon, P. S., 1966. Population ecology of Gammarus lacustris Sars. Ph. D. thesis, University of Alberta, Canada. 117 pp.Google Scholar
  105. Mills, E. L., 1963. The biology of an ampeliscid amphipod crustacean sibling species pair. Ph. D. thesis, Yale University. 160 pp.Google Scholar
  106. Mills, E. L., 1967. The biology of an ampeliscid amphipod crustacean sibling species pair. J. Fish Res. Bd. Can. 24: 305–355.Google Scholar
  107. Moore, P. G., 1981. The life histories of the amphipods Lembos websteri Bate and Corophium bonnellii Milne Edwards in kelp holdfasts. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 49: 1–50.Google Scholar
  108. Morino, H., 1978. Studies on the Talitridae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in Japan. III. Life history and breeding activity of Orchestia platensis Krøyer. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 24: 245–267.Google Scholar
  109. Morino, H., 1981. Studies on the Talitridae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in Japan IV. The development of gnathopod II in Orchestia platensis Krøyer. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 26: 1–13.Google Scholar
  110. Morino, H., 1984. On a new freshwater species of Anisogammaridae (Gammaroidea: Amphipoda) from central Japan. Publ. Itako Hydrobiol. Stn. 1: 17–23.Google Scholar
  111. Myers, A. A., 1971. Breeding and growth in laboratory-reared Microdeutopus gryllotalpa Costa (Amphipoda: Gammaridea). J. nat. Hist. 5: 271–277.Google Scholar
  112. Nagle, J. S., 1968. Distribution of the epibiota of macroepibenthic plants. Contr. mar. Sci. 13: 105–144.Google Scholar
  113. Nair, K. K. C. & K. Anger, 1979. Experimental studies on the life cycle of Jassa falcata (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Helgoländer wiss. Meeresunters. 32: 444–452.Google Scholar
  114. Naylor, C., J. Adams & P. Greenwood, 1988a. Population dynamics and adaptive sexual strategies in a brackish water crustacean, Gammarus duebeni. J. anim. Ecol. 57: 493–507.Google Scholar
  115. Naylor, C., J. Adams & P. Greenwood, 1988b. Variation in sex determination in natural populations of a shrimp. J. evol. Biol. 1: 355–368.Google Scholar
  116. Naylor, C. & J. Adams, 1987. Sexual dimorphism, drag constraints and male performance in Gammarus duebeni (Amphipoda). Oikos 48: 23–27.Google Scholar
  117. Omori, K., M. Tanaka & T. Kikuchi, 1982. Seasonal changes of short-term reproductive cycle in Corophium volutator (Crustacea: Amphipoda). — Semi-lunar or lunar cycle? Publ. Amakusa Mar. Biol. Lab. Kyushu Univ. 6: 105–117.Google Scholar
  118. Pinkster, S. & N. W. Broodbakker, 1980. The influence of environmental factors on distribution and reproductive success of Eulimnogammarus obtusatus (Dahl, 1938) and other estuarine gammarids. Crustaceana Suppl. 6: 225–241.Google Scholar
  119. Preece, G. S., 1971. The swimming rhythm of Bathyporeia pilosa (Crustacea: Amphipoda). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 51: 777–791.Google Scholar
  120. Rees, C. P., 1975. Life cycle of the amphipod Gammarus palustris Bousfield. Estuar. coast. mar. Sci. 3: 413–419.Google Scholar
  121. Ridley, M., 1983. The explanation of organic diversity. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. 272 pp.Google Scholar
  122. Robinson, B. W. & R. W. Doyle, 1985. Trade-off between male reproduction (amplexus) and growth in the amphipod Gammarus lawrencianus. Biol. Bull. 168: 482–488.Google Scholar
  123. Sainte-Marie, B. & P. Brunel, 1983. Differences in life history and success between suprabenthic shelf populations of Arrhis phyllonyx (Amphipoda Gammaridea) in two ecosystems of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Crustacean Biol. 3: 45–69.Google Scholar
  124. Sameoto, D. D., 1969. Comparative ecology, life histories, and behaviour of intertidal sand-burrowing amphipods (Crustacea: Haustoriidae) at Cape Cod. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 26: 361–388.Google Scholar
  125. Segerstråle, S. G., 1970. Light control of the reproductive cycle of Pontoporeia affinis Lindström (Crustacea Amphipoda). J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 5: 272–275.Google Scholar
  126. Sexton, E. W., 1924. The moulting and growth-stages of Gammarus with descriptions of the normals and intersexes of Gammarus chevreuxi. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 13: 340–401.Google Scholar
  127. Sexton, E. W. & A. Matthews, 1913. Notes on the life history of Gammarus chevreuxi. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 9: 546–556.Google Scholar
  128. Sexton, E. W. & D. M. Reid, 1951. The life-history of the multiform species Jassa falcata (Montagu) (Crustacea Amphipoda), with a review of the bibliography of the species. J. Linn. Soc., Zool. 42: 29–91.Google Scholar
  129. Sexton, E. W. & G. M. Spooner, 1940. An account of Marinogammarus (Schellenberg) gen. nov. (Amphipoda), with a description of a new species, Marinogammarus pirlotti. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 24: 633–682.Google Scholar
  130. Sheader, M., 1977a. Production and population dynamics of Ampelisca tenuicornis (Amphipoda) with notes on the biology of its parasite Sphaeronella longipes (Copepoda). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 57: 955–968.Google Scholar
  131. Sheader, M., 1977b. Breeding and marsupial development in laboratory-maintained Parathemisto gaudichaudi (Amphipoda). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 57: 943–954.Google Scholar
  132. Sheader, M., 1978. Distribution and reproductive biology of Corophium insidiosum (Amphipoda) on the north-east coast of England. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 58: 585–596.Google Scholar
  133. Sheader, M., 1983. The reproductive biology and ecology of Gammarus duebeni (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in southern England. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 63: 517–540.Google Scholar
  134. Sheader, M. & F. Chia, 1970. Development, fecundity and brooding behaviour of the amphipod, Marinogammarus obtusatus. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 50: 1079–1099.Google Scholar
  135. Shillaker, R. O. & P. G. Moore, 1987a. Tube-emergence behaviour in the amphipods Lembos websteri Bate and Corophium bonnellii Milne Edwards. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 111: 231–241.Google Scholar
  136. Shillaker, R. O. & P. G. Moore, 1987b. The biology of brooding in the amphipods Lembos websteri Bate and Corophium bonnellii Milne Edwards. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 110: 113–132.Google Scholar
  137. Skutch, A. F., 1926. On the habits and ecology of the tube-building amphipod Amphithoë rubricata Montagu. Ecology 7: 481–501.Google Scholar
  138. Slattery, P. N., 1985. Life histories of infaunal amphipods from subtidal sands of Monterey Bay, California. J. Crustacean Biol. 5: 635–649.Google Scholar
  139. Smallwood, M. E., 1905. The salt-marsh Amphipod: Orchestia palustris. Cold Spring Harbor Monographs No. 3.Google Scholar
  140. Sprules, W. G., 1967. The life cycle of Crangonyx richmondensis laurentianus Bousfield (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Can. J. Zool. 45: 877–884.Google Scholar
  141. Staude, C. P., 1986. Systematics and behavioral ecology of the amphipod genus Paramoera Miers (Gammaridea: Eusiroidea: Pontogeneiidae) in the eastern north Pacific. Ph. D. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle. 324 pp.Google Scholar
  142. Steele, D. H., 1973. The biology of Parhyalella pietschmanni Schellenberg, 1938 (Amphipoda, Hyalellidae) at Nosy Bé, Madagascar. Crustaceana 25: 276–280.Google Scholar
  143. Steele, D. H. & V. J. Steele, 1969. The biology of Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the northwestern Atlantic. I. Gammarus duebeni Lillj. Can. J. Zool. 47: 235–244.Google Scholar
  144. Steele, D. H. & V. J. Steele, 1970a. The biology of Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the northwestern Atlantic. III. Gammarus obtusatus Dahl. Can. J. Zool. 48: 989–995.Google Scholar
  145. Steele, D. H. & V. J. Steele, 1970b. The biology of Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the northwestern Atlantic. IV. Gammarus lawrencianus Bousfield. Can. J. Zool. 48: 1261–1267.Google Scholar
  146. Steele, D. H. & V. J. Steele, 1972. The biology of Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the northwestern Atlantic. V. Gammarus oceanicus Segerstråle. Can. J. Zool. 50: 801–813.Google Scholar
  147. Steele, D. H. & V. J. Steele, 1973. The biology of Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the northwestern Atlantic. VII. The duration of embryonic development in five species at various temperatures. Can. J. Zool. 51: 995–999.Google Scholar
  148. Steele, D. H. & V. J. Steele, 1975. The biology of Gammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the northwestern Atlantic. XI. Comparison and discussion. Can. J. Zool. 53: 1116–1126.Google Scholar
  149. Steele, D. H. & V. J. Steele, 1986. The cost of reproduction in the amphipod Gammarus lawrencianus Bousfield, 1956. Crustaceana 51: 176–182.Google Scholar
  150. Steele, V. J., D. H. Steele & B. R. MacPherson, 1977. The effect of photoperiod on the reproductive cycle of Gammarus setosus Dementieva, 1931. Crustaceana, suppl. 4: 58–63.Google Scholar
  151. Strong, D. R., Jr., 1972. Life history variation among populations of an amphipod (Hyalella azteca). Ecology 53: 1103–1111.Google Scholar
  152. Strong, D. R., Jr., 1973. Amphipod amplexus, the significance of ecotypic variation. Ecology 54: 1384–1388.Google Scholar
  153. Thompson, D. J. & S. J. Moule, 1983. Substrate selection and assortative mating in Gammarus pulex L. Hydrobiologia 99: 3–6.Google Scholar
  154. Trivers, R. L., 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (ed), Sexual selection and the descent of man. Aldine, Chicago: 136–179.Google Scholar
  155. Van Dolah, R. F., 1978. Factors regulating the distribution and population dynamics of the amphipod Gammarus palustris in an intertidal salt marsh community. Ecol. Monogr. 48: 191–217.Google Scholar
  156. Van Senus, P., 1988. Reproduction of the sandhopper, Talorchestia capensis (Dana) (Amphipoda, Talitridae). Crustaceana 55: 93–103.Google Scholar
  157. Vlasblom, A. G., 1969. A study of a population of Marinogammarus marinus (Leach) in the Oosterschelde. Neth. J. Sea Res. 4: 317–338.Google Scholar
  158. Ward, P. I., 1983. Advantages and a disadvantage of large size for male Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 14: 69–76.Google Scholar
  159. Ward, P. I., 1984. The effects of size on the mating decision of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Z. Tierpsychol. 64: 174–184.Google Scholar
  160. Ward, P. I., 1985. The breeding behaviour of Gammarus duebeni. Hydrobiologia 121: 45–50.Google Scholar
  161. Ward, P. I., 1986. A comparative field study of the breeding behaviour of a stream and a pond population of Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda). Oikos 46: 29–36.Google Scholar
  162. Ward, P. I., 1987. Sexual selection and body size in Gammarus pulex: reply to Greenwood and Adams. Oikos 48: 108–109.Google Scholar
  163. Ward, P. I., 1988. Sexual selection, natural selection, and body size in Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda). Am. Nat. 131: 348–359.Google Scholar
  164. Ward, P. I., 1989. Mate choice in Gammarus (Amphipoda). J. Zool., Lond. 218: 633–635.Google Scholar
  165. Watkin, E. E., 1940. The swimming and burrowing habits of the amphipod Urothoë marina (Bate). Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. 60: 271–280.Google Scholar
  166. Watkin, E. E., 1941. The yearly life cycle of the amphipod, Corophium volutator. J. anim. Ecol. 10: 77–93.Google Scholar
  167. Welton, J. S. & R. T. Clarke, 1980. Laboratory studies on the reproduction and growth of the amphipod, Gammarus pulex (L.). J. anim. Ecol. 49: 581–592.Google Scholar
  168. Wilder, J., 1940. The effects of population density upon growth, reproduction, and survival of Hyalella azteca. Physiol. Zool. 13: 439–461.Google Scholar
  169. Wildish, D. J., 1979. Reproductive consequences of the terrestrial habit in Orchestia (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Int. J. Invert. Reprod. 1: 9–20.Google Scholar
  170. Wildish, D. J., 1984. Secondary production of four sublittoral, soft-sediment amphipod populations in the Bay of Fundy. Can. J. Zool. 62: 1027–1033.Google Scholar
  171. Wildish, D. J. & J. J. Dickinson, 1982. A new species of Haploops (Amphipoda, Ampeliscidae) from the Bay of Fundy. Can. J. Zool. 60: 962–967.Google Scholar
  172. Wildish, D. J. & D. Peer, 1981. Methods for estimating secondary production in marine Amphipoda. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38: 1019–1026.Google Scholar
  173. Williams, J. A., 1978. The annual pattern of reproduction of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Talitridae). J. Zool., Lond. 184: 231–244.Google Scholar
  174. Williamson, D. I., 1951. On the mating and breeding of some semi-terrestrial amphipods. Dove Marine Laboratory Report, Third Series 12: 49–61.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen E. Conlan
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoology DivisionCanadian Museum of Nature (formerly National Museum of Natural Sciences)OttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations