Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 217–241 | Cite as

The impact of introduced brown and rainbow trout on native fish: the case of Australasia

  • Todd A. Crowl
  • Colin R. Townsend
  • Angus R. Mcintosh
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, G.R. (1989)Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Brookvale, Australia: T.F.H. Publications, Inc. 240 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, K.R. (1951) The Horokiwi stream: a study of a trout population.N.Z. mar. Dept Fish. Bull. 10, 1–238.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, K.R. (1961) Relations between Salmonidae and the native freshwater fauna in New Zealand.Proc. N.Z. Ecol. Soc. 8, 66–70.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, P.J., Turner, D.L.P. and Little, R.W. (1971) Survey of Kai-iwi Lakes.N.Z. mar. Dept Freshwat. Fish Advis. Serv. Invest. Rep. 6, 1–14.Google Scholar
  5. Allendorf, F.W. (1988) Conservation biology of fishes.Conserv. Biol. 2, 145–8.Google Scholar
  6. Allendorf, F.W. and Leary, R.F. (1988) Conservation and distribution of genetic variation in a polytypic species, the cutthroat trout.Conserv. Biol. 2, 170–84.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, R.M. and May, R.M. (1981) The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts.Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 291B, 451–521.Google Scholar
  8. Andrusak, H. and Northcote, T.G. (1971) Segregation between adult cutthroat (Salmo clarki) and dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) trout in small coastal British Columbian lakes.J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 28, 1259–68.Google Scholar
  9. Bachman, R.A. (1984) Foraging behaviour of free-ranging wild and hatchery brown trout in a stream.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 113, 1–32.Google Scholar
  10. Balon, E.K. and Bruton, M.N. (1986) Introduction of alien species or why scientific advice is not heeded.Env. Biol. Fishes 16, 225–30.Google Scholar
  11. Barel, C.D.N., Dorit, R., Greenwood, P.H., Fryer, G., Hughes, N., Jackson, P.B.N., Kawanabe, H., Lowe-McConnell, R.H., Nagoshi, M., Ribbink, A.J., Trewevas, E., Witte, F. and Yamaoka, K. (1985) Destruction of fisheries in Africa's lakes.Nature, Lond.,315, 19–20.Google Scholar
  12. Best, E. (1929) Fishing methods and devices of the Maori.Dom. Mus. Bull. 12, 1–230.Google Scholar
  13. Bradshaw, A.D. (1965) Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants.Adv. Genet. 13, 115–55.Google Scholar
  14. Brockie, R.E., Loope, L.L., Usher, M.B. and Hamann, O. (1988) Biological invasions of island nature reserves.Biol. Conserv. 44, 9–36.Google Scholar
  15. Burnet, A.M.R. (1969) A study of the inter-relation between cels and trout, the invertebrate fauna and the feeding habits of the fish.N.Z. mar. Dept Fish. tech. Rep. 36, 1–23.Google Scholar
  16. Burnet, A.M.R. (1970) Seasonal growth in brown trout in two New Zealand streams.N.Z.J. mar. freshwat. Res. 4, 55–62.Google Scholar
  17. Burstall, P.J. (1983) Trout fishery: a history of management. In Forsyth, D.J. and Howard-Williams, C., eds.Lake Taupo-Ecology of a New Zealand Lake. Wellington: N.Z. Dept Scient. Indust. Res., Information Ser., pp. 1–163.Google Scholar
  18. Butcher, A.D. (1945) The food of indigenous and non-indigenous freshwater fish in Victoria, with special reference to trout.Vict. Fish. Game Dept, Fish. Pamph. 2, 1–48.Google Scholar
  19. Cadwallader, P.L. (1975a) Feeding relationships of galaxiids, bullies, eels and trout in a New Zealand River.Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 26, 299–316.Google Scholar
  20. Cadwallader, P.L. (1975b) The food of the New Zealand common river galaxias,Galaxias vulgaris Stokell (Pisces: Salmoniformes).Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 26, 15–30.Google Scholar
  21. Cadwallader, P.L. (1975c) Feeding habits of two fish species in relation to invertebrate drift in a New Zealand River.N.Z.J. mar. freshwat. Res. 9, 11–26.Google Scholar
  22. Cadwallader, P.L. (1978) Some causes of the decline in range and abundance of native fish in the Murray-Darling River system.Proc. R. Soc. Vic. 90, 211–24.Google Scholar
  23. Cadwallader, P.L. (1979) Distribution of native and introduced fish in the Seven Creeks River system, Victoria.Aust. J. Ecol. 4, 361–85.Google Scholar
  24. Cadwallader, P.L. and Eden, A.K. (1982) Observations on the food of rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri Richardson, in Lake Purrumbete, Victoria.Bull. Aust. Soc. Limnol. 8, 17–21.Google Scholar
  25. Cadwallader, P.L. and Rogan, P.L. (1977) The Macquarie perch,Macquaria australasica (Pisces: Percichthyidae), of Lake Eildon, Victoria.Aust. J. Ecol. 2, 409–18.Google Scholar
  26. Cairns, D. (1942) Life-history of the two species of fresh-water eel in New Zealand. II. Food and inter-relationship with trout.N.Z.J. Sci. Tech. 23, 132–48.Google Scholar
  27. Cerri, R.D. and Fraser, D.F. (1983) Predation and risk in foraging minnows: balancing conflicting demands.Am. Nat. 121, 552–61.Google Scholar
  28. Chapman, D.W. (1966) Food and space as regulators of salmonid populations in streams.Am. Nat. 100, 345–57.Google Scholar
  29. Colwell, R.K. and Futuyma, D.J. (1971) On the measurement of niche breadth and overlap.Ecology 52, 567–76.Google Scholar
  30. Crawley, M.J. (1986) The population biology of invaders.Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 314B, 711–31.Google Scholar
  31. Crawley, M.J. (1987) What makes a community invasible? In Gray, A.J., Crawley, M.J. and Edwards, P.J., eds.Colonization, Succession and Stability. London: Oxford Univ. Press pp. 429–54.Google Scholar
  32. Crowl, T.A. (1989) Effects of crayfish size, orientation, and movement on the reactive distance of largemouth bass foraging in clear and turbid water.Hydrobiologia 183, 133–40.Google Scholar
  33. Crowl, T.A. and Boxrucker, J. (1990) Competitive effects of two introduced planktivores (threadfin shad and inland silversides) on white crappie in Lake Thunderbird, Oklahoma.Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeast. Ass. Fish Wildl. Agenc. 41, 348–60.Google Scholar
  34. Diamond, J.M. (1978) Niche shifts and the rediscovery of interspecific competition.Am. Sci. 66 322–31.Google Scholar
  35. Edge, K.A. (1991) The effect of brown trout (Salmo trutta) on the foraging behaviour of three closely related native galaxiid species. BSc (Hons) diss. Univ. Otago, Dunedin, N.Z. 67 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Egglishaw, H.J. and Shackley, P.E. (1977) Growth, survival and production of juvenile salmon and trout in Scottish stream, 1966–75.J. Fish Biol. 11, 647–72.Google Scholar
  37. Eldon, G.A. (1979) Habitat and interspecific relationships of the Canterbury mudfish,Neochanna burrowsius (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae).N.Z. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 13, 111–19.Google Scholar
  38. Elliott, J.M. (1975) The growth rate of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) fed on maximum rations.J. Anim. Ecol. 44, 805–22.Google Scholar
  39. Elliott, J.M. (1984) Numerical changes and population regulation in young migratory troutSalmo trutta in a Lake District stream 1966–83.J. Anim. Ecol. 53, 327–50.Google Scholar
  40. Elliott, J.M. (1989) Wild brown troutSalmo trutta: an important national and international resource.Freshwat. Biol. 21, 1–5.Google Scholar
  41. Elton, C.S. (1958)The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. New York: John Wiley. 181 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Everest, F.H. and Chapman, D.W. (1972) Habitat selection and spatial interaction by juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead trout in two Idaho streams.J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 29, 91–100.Google Scholar
  43. Fausch, K.D. and White, R.J. (1981) Competition between brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) for positions in a Michigan stream.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38, 1220–27.Google Scholar
  44. Ferguson, M.M. (1990) The genetic impact of introduced fishes on native species.Can. J. Zool. 68, 1053–7.Google Scholar
  45. Ferguson, M.M., Danzmann, R.G. and Allendorf, F.W. (1988) Developmental success of hybrids between two taxa of salmonid fishes with moderate structural gene divergence.Can. J. Zool. 66, 1389–95.Google Scholar
  46. Fish, G.R. (1966) An artificially maintained trout population in a Northland lake.N.Z. J. Sci. 9, 200–210.Google Scholar
  47. Fletcher,A.R. (1979) Effects ofSalmo trutta onGalaxias olidus and macroinvertebrates in stream communities. MSc thesis, Monash Univ., Australia.Google Scholar
  48. Fletcher, A.R. (1986) Effects of introduced fish in Australia. In DeDeckker, P., ed.Limnology in Australia. Dordrecht: Dr W. Junk, pp. 231–8.Google Scholar
  49. Frankenberg, R.A. (1966) Fishes of the family Galaxiidae.Aust. Nat. Hist. 15, 161–4.Google Scholar
  50. Fraser, D.F. and Cerri, R.D. (1982) Experimental evaluation of predator-prey relationships in a patchy environment: consequences for habitat use.Ecology 63, 307–13.Google Scholar
  51. Fraser, D.F. and Gilliam, J.F. (1987) Feeding under predation hazard: response of the guppy and Hart's rivulus from sites with contrasting predation hazard.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 21, 203–9.Google Scholar
  52. Fraser, D.F. and Huntingford, F.A. (1986) Feeding and avoiding predation hazard: the behavioral response of the prey.Ethology 73, 56–68.Google Scholar
  53. Frost, W.E. and Brown, M.E. (1967)The Trout. London: Collins. 268 pp.Google Scholar
  54. Fryer, G. (1960) Concerning the proposed introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria.E. Afr. Agric. J. 25, 267–70.Google Scholar
  55. Fulton, W. (1978) A new species ofGalaxias (Pisces: Galaxiidae) from the Swan River Tasmania.Rec. Queen Vict. Mus. 63, 1–8.Google Scholar
  56. Galtz, A.J., Sale, M.J. and Loar, J.M. (1987) Habitat shifts in rainbow trout: competitive influences of brown trout.Oecologia 74, 7–19.Google Scholar
  57. Gasaway, R.D. and Drda, T.F. (1977) Effects of grass carp introduction on water-fowl habitat.Trans. N. Am. Wild. Nat. Res. Conf. 42, 73–85.Google Scholar
  58. Gilliam, J.F. and Fraser, D.F. (1987) Habitat selection under predation hazard: test of a model with foraging minnows.Ecology 68, 1856–62.Google Scholar
  59. Glova, G.J. (1989) Native and salmonid fishes: are they compatible?Freshwat. Catch 40, 12–13.Google Scholar
  60. Glova, G.J. (1990) Galaxiids more vulnerable than bullies to trout predation.Freshwat. Catch 43, 19–20.Google Scholar
  61. Glova, G.J. and Sagar, P.M. (1991) Dietary and spatial overlap between stream populations of a native and two introduced fish species in New Zealand.Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 42, 423–33.Google Scholar
  62. Goodman, D. (1975) The theory of diversity-stability relationships.Q. Rev. Biol. 50, 37–266.Google Scholar
  63. Gray, A.J. (1986) Do invading species have definable genetic characteristics?Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 314B, 655–74.Google Scholar
  64. Hanchet, S.M. (1990) Effect of land use on the distribution and abundance of native fish in tributaries of the Waikato River in the Hakarimata Range, North Island, New Zealand.N.Z. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 24, 159–71.Google Scholar
  65. Hayes, J.W. (1988) Mortality and growth of juvenile brown and rainbow trout in a lake nursery stream, New Zealand.N.Z. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 22, 169–79.Google Scholar
  66. Hayes, J.W., Leathwick, J.R. and Hanchet, S.M. (1989) Fish distribution patterns and their association with environmental factors in the Mokau River Catchment, New Zealand.N.Z. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 23, 171–80.Google Scholar
  67. Hearn, W.E. (1987) Interspecific competition and habitat segregation among stream-dwelling trout and salmon: a review.Fisheries 12, 24–31.Google Scholar
  68. Hearn, W.E. and Kynard, B.E. (1986). Habitat utilisation and behavioural interaction of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (S. gairdneri) in tributaries of the Williams River, Vermont.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 43, 1988–98.Google Scholar
  69. Herbold, B. and Moyle, P.B. (1986) Introduced species and vacant niches.Am. Nat. 128, 751–60.Google Scholar
  70. Hestand, R.S. and Carter, C.C. (1978) Comparative effects of grass carp and selected herbicides on macrophyte and phytoplankton communities.J. aquat. Plant Manage. 16, 43–50.Google Scholar
  71. Holdgate, M.W. (1986) Summary and conclusions: characteristics and consequences of biological invasions.Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 314B, 733–42.Google Scholar
  72. Hopkins, C.L. (1965) Feeding relationships in a mixed population of freshwater fish.N.Z. J. Sci. 8, 149–57.Google Scholar
  73. Hopkins, C.L. (1971) Production of fish in two small streams in the North Island of New Zealand.N.Z. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 5, 280–90.Google Scholar
  74. Hurlbert, S.H. (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments.Ecol. Monogr. 54, 187–211.Google Scholar
  75. Hutchinson, R.P. (1971) The effect of fish predation on the zooplankton of ten Adirondack lakes, with particular reference to the alewife,Alosa pseudoharengus.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 100, 325–35.Google Scholar
  76. Jackson, P.D. (1978) Benthic invertebrate fauna and feeding relationships of brown trout,Salmo trutta Linnaeus, and river blackfish,Gadopsis marmoratus Richardson, in the Aberfeldy River, Victoria,Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 29, 725–42.Google Scholar
  77. Jackson, P.D.J. (1981) Trout introduced into South-eastern Australia: their interaction with native fishes.Victorian Nat. 98, 18–24.Google Scholar
  78. Jackson, P.D. and Davies, J.N. (1983) Survey of the fish fauna in the Grampians Region, South-Western Victoria.Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 95, 39–51.Google Scholar
  79. Jackson, P.D. and Williams, W.D. (1980) Effects of brown trout,Salmo trutta L. on the distribution of some native fishes in three areas of Southern Victoria.Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 31, 61–7.Google Scholar
  80. Johannes, R.E. and Larkin, P.A. (1961) Competition for food between redside shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in two British Columbia lakes.J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 18, 203–20.Google Scholar
  81. Kalleberg, H. (1958) Observations in a stream tank of territoriality and competition in juvenile salmon and trout (Salmo salar L. andSalmo trutta L.).Rept. Inst. Freshwat. Res. Drottningholm 39, 55–98.Google Scholar
  82. Kusabs, I.A. and Swales, S. (1991) Diet and food resource partitioning in Koaro,Galaxias brevipinnis (Günther), and juvenile rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss (Richardson), in two Taupo streams, New Zealand.N.Z.J. mar. freshwat. Res. 25, 317–25.Google Scholar
  83. Lachner, E.A., Robins, C.R. and Courtney, W.R. (1970) Exotic fishes and other aquatic organisms introduced into North America.Smithson. Contr. Zool. 59, 1–29.Google Scholar
  84. Lake, J.S. (1971)Freshwater Fishes and Rivers of Australia. Melbourne: Nelson. 61 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Larsen, G.L. and Moore, S.E. (1985) Encroachment of exotic rainbow trout into stream populations of native brook trout in the southern Appalachian Mountains.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114, 195–203.Google Scholar
  86. Li, H.W. and Moyle, P.B. (1981) Ecological analysis of species introductions into aquatic systems.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 110, 772–82.Google Scholar
  87. Loope, L.L., Sanchez, P.G., Tarr, P.W., Loope, W.L. and Anderson, R.L. (1988) Biological invasions of arid land nature reserves.Biol. Conserv. 44, 95–118.Google Scholar
  88. MacArthur, R.H. and Wilson, E.O. (1967)The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. 203 pp.Google Scholar
  89. MacCrimmon, H.R. (1971) World distribution of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 28, 663–704.Google Scholar
  90. MacCrimmon, H.R. and Marshall, T.L. (1968) World distribution of brown trout,Salmo trutta.J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 25, 2527–48.Google Scholar
  91. McDowall, R.M. (1968) Interactions of the native and alien faunas of New Zealand and the problem of fish introductions.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 97, 1–11.Google Scholar
  92. McDowall, R.M. (1970) The galaxiid fishes of New Zealand.Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. 139, 341–433.Google Scholar
  93. McDowall, R.M. (1984) Exotic fishes: the New Zealand experience. In Courtney, W.R. and Stauffer, J.R., eds.Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, pp. 200–14.Google Scholar
  94. McDowall, R.M. (1987) Impacts of exotic fishes on the native fauna. In Viner, A.B., ed. Inland waters of New Zealand.Dept Scient. Ind. Res. Bull. No.241. pp. 333–347.Google Scholar
  95. McDowall, R.M. (1990a)New Zealand Freshwater Fishes. Auckland: Heinemann Reed. 553 pp.Google Scholar
  96. McDowall, R.M. (1990b) When galaxiid and salmonid fishes meet—a family reunion in New Zealand.J. Fish Biol. 37 (Supp. A), 35–43.Google Scholar
  97. McDowall, R.M. and Frankenberg, R.S. (1981) The galaxiid fishes of Australia.Rec. Aust. Mus. 33, 443–605.Google Scholar
  98. McDowall, R.M. and Richardson, J. (1983) New Zealand freshwater fish survey: a guide to input and output.N.Z. Min. Agric. Fish., Wellington, N.Z., Fish. Information Leaflet 12, 1–15.Google Scholar
  99. McIntosh, A.R. (1990) Competition for space between brown trout and the common river galaxias. BSc (Hons.) diss. Univ. Otago, Dunedin, N.Z. 75 pp.Google Scholar
  100. McIntosh, A.R., Townsend, C.R. and Crowl, T.A. (in press) Competition for space between introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and a native galaxiid (Galaxias vulgaris Stokell) in a New Zealand stream.J. Fish Biol. Google Scholar
  101. Maciolek, J.A. (1984)Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. In Courtney, W.R. and Stauffer, J.R. eds.Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, pp. 322–73.Google Scholar
  102. McKay, R.J. (1984) Introductions of exotic fishes in Australia. In Courtney, W.R. and Stauffer, J.R., eds.,Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, pp. 322–73.Google Scholar
  103. McKeown, K.C. (1934) Notes on the food of trout and Macquarie perch in Australia.Rec. Aust. Mus. 19, 141–52.Google Scholar
  104. Main, M.R. (1988) Factors influencing the distribution of kokopu and koaro (Pisces: Galaxiidae). MSc thesis, Univ. Canterbury, N.Z. 127 pp.Google Scholar
  105. Main, M.R., Nicol, G.J. and Eldon, G.A. (1985) Distribution and biology of fishes in the Cook River to Paringa River area, South Westland.N.Z. Min. Agric. Fish., Wellington, N.Z., Fish. env. Rep. No.60. 142 pp.Google Scholar
  106. Meffe, G.K. (1985) Predation and species replacement in American southwestern fishes: a case study.Southwest Nat. 30, 173–87.Google Scholar
  107. Meffe, G.K., Hendrickson, D.A., Minckley, W.L. and Rinne, J.N. (1983) Factors resulting in decline of the endangered Sonoran topminnow (Atheriniformes: Poeciliidae) in the United States.Biol. Conserv. 25, 135–59.Google Scholar
  108. Merrick, J.R. and Schmida, G.E. (1984)Australian Freshwater Fishes: Biology and Management. South Australia: Griffin Press Ltd., Netley. 409 pp.Google Scholar
  109. Minckley, W.L. (1973) Status of the razorback sucker,Xyrauchen texanus (Abbott), in the lower Colorado River system.Southwest Nat. 28, 165–87.Google Scholar
  110. Minns, C.K.J. (1990) Patterns and association of freshwater fish in New Zealand.N.Z. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 24, 31–44.Google Scholar
  111. Mitchell, C.P. (1986) Effects of introducing grass carp on populations of two species of native fish in a small lake.N.Z. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 20, 219–30.Google Scholar
  112. Moihson, D. (1986) Modelling biological invasions: chance, explanation, prediction.Phil. Trans R. Soc. 314B, 675–93.Google Scholar
  113. Morrissy,N.M. (1967) The ecology of trout in South Australia. PhD thesis, Univ. Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. 374 pp.Google Scholar
  114. Moyle, P.B. (1976) Fish introductions in California. History and impact on native fishes.Biol. Conserv. 9, 101–18.Google Scholar
  115. Moyle, P.B. and Marciochi, A. (1975) Biology of the Modac sucker,Catostomus microps in northeastern California.Copeia 1975 (3), 556–60.Google Scholar
  116. Newman, M.A. (1956) Social behaviour and interspecific competition in two trout species.Physiol. Zool. 29, 64–81.Google Scholar
  117. Nilsson, N.A. (1967) Interactive segregation between fish species. In Brown, S.D., ed.The Biological Basis of Freshwater Fish Production. New York: Wiley, pp. 295–313.Google Scholar
  118. Nilsson, N.A. and Northcote, T.G. (1981) Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and cutthroat trout (S. clarki) interaction in coastal British Colubian lakes.Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 38, 1228–46.Google Scholar
  119. Paine, R.T. (1969) ThePisaster-Tegula interaction: prey patches, predator food preference, and intertidal community structure.Ecology 50, 950–61.Google Scholar
  120. Parsons, P.A. (1987) Feature of colonizing animals: phenotypes and genotypes. In Gray, A.J., Crawley, M.J. and Edwards, P.J., eds.Colonization, Succession and Stability. London: Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 133–54.Google Scholar
  121. Percival, E. and Burnet, A.M.R. (1963) A study of the Lake Lyndon rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). N.Z.J. Sci.6 273–303.Google Scholar
  122. Petrushevski, G.K. and Shulman, S.S. (1961) The parasitic diseases of fishes in the natural waters of the USSR. In Dogel, V.A., Petrushevski, G.K. and Polyanski, Y.I., eds.Parasitology of Fishes. London: Oliver Boyd Publishers, pp. 299–319.Google Scholar
  123. Phillipps, W.J. (1924) Food supply and deterioration of trout in the thermal lakes district, North Island, New Zealand.Trans. Proc. N.Z.Inst. 55, 381–91.Google Scholar
  124. Pollard, D.A. (ed.) (1990)Introduced and Translocated Fishes and their Ecological Effects. (Proceedings No. 8, Australian Society for Fish Biology workshop, Magnetic Island, 24–25 August 1989). Canberra: Bureau of Rural Resources. 181 pp.Google Scholar
  125. Post, W.M. and Pimm, S.L. (1983) Community assembly and food web stability.Math. Biosci. 64 169–92.Google Scholar
  126. Rosenthal, H. (1980) Implications of transplantation to aquaculture and ecosystems.Mar. Fish. Rev. 42, 1–14.Google Scholar
  127. Rowe, D. (1990) Who killed the koaro?Freshwat. Catch 43, 15–18.Google Scholar
  128. Ryman, N. (1983) Patterns of distribution of biochemical genetic variation in salmonids: differences between species.Aquaculture 33, 1–21.Google Scholar
  129. Ryman, N. and Utter, F. (1987)Population Genetics and Fishery Management. Seattle: Univ. Washington Press. 420 pp.Google Scholar
  130. Sagar, P.M. and Eldon, G.A. (1983) Food and feeding of small fish in the Rakaia River, New Zealand.N.Z.J. mar. freshwat. Res. 17, 213–26.Google Scholar
  131. Savino, J.F. and Stein, R.A. (1982) Predator-prey interaction between largemouth bass and bluegills as influenced by simulated, submersed vegetation.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 111, 255–66.Google Scholar
  132. Scott, D. (1978) The origins of rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri Richardson, in New Zealand.Calif. Fish Game 64, 200–209.Google Scholar
  133. Scott, D. (1985) Migration and the transequatorial establishment of salmonids.Verh. int. Verein. Limnol. 22, 2684–90.Google Scholar
  134. Smith, S.H. (1968) Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes.J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 25, 667–93.Google Scholar
  135. Smith, S.H. (1970) Species interactions of the alewife in the Great Lakes.Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 99, 754–65.Google Scholar
  136. Southwood, T.R.E. (1977) Habitat, the templet for ecological strategies.J. Anim. Ecol. 46, 337–65.Google Scholar
  137. Southood, T.R.E. (1988) Tactics, strategies, and templets.Oikos 52, 3–18.Google Scholar
  138. Swales, S. and West, D.W. (1991) Distribution, abundance and conservation status of native fish in some Waikato streams in the North Island of New Zealand.J. R. Soc. N.Z. 21, 281–96.Google Scholar
  139. Taylor, J.N., Courtney, W.R., Jun and McCann, J.A. (1984) Known impact of exotic fishes in the continental United States. In Courtney, W.R. and Stauffer, J.R., eds.Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, pp. 322–73.Google Scholar
  140. Thomson, G.M. (1992)The Naturalisation of Animals and Plants in New Zealand. London: Cambridge Univ. Press. 607 pp.Google Scholar
  141. Thorp, J.H. (1986) Two distinct roles for predators in freshwater assemblages.Oikos 47, 75–82.Google Scholar
  142. Thorpe, J.E. (1974) Estimation of the number of brown troutSalmo trutta (L.) in Loch Leven, Kinross, Scotland.J. Fish Biol. 6, 135–52.Google Scholar
  143. Tilzey, R.D.J. (1976) Observations on interactions between indigenous Galaxiidae and introduced Salmonidae in the Lake Eucumbene catchment, New South Wales.Aust. J. mar. freshwat. Res. 27, 551–64.Google Scholar
  144. Tilzey, R.D.J. (1977) The key factors in the establishment and success of trout in Australia.Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust. 10, 97–105.Google Scholar
  145. Tilzey, R.D.J. (1980) Introduced fish. In Williams, W.D., ed.An Ecological Basis for Water Resource Management. Canberra: Australia National Univ. Press, pp. 271–9.Google Scholar
  146. Townsend, C.R. (1991) Exotic species management and the need for a theory of invasion ecology.N.Z. J. Ecol. 15, 1–3.Google Scholar
  147. Townsend, C.R. and Crowl, T.A. (1991) Fragmented population structure in a native New Zealand fish: an effect of introduced brown trout?Oikos 61, 347–54.Google Scholar
  148. Usher, M.B. (1986) Invasibility and wildlife conservation: invasive species on nature reserves.Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 314B, 695–710.Google Scholar
  149. Usher, M.B. (1988) Biological invasions of nature reserves: a search for generalisations.Biol. Conserv. 44, 119–35.Google Scholar
  150. Usher, M.B., Kruger, F.J., Macdonald, I.A.W., Loope, L.L. and Brockie, R.E. (1988) The ecology of biological invasions into nature reserves: an introduction.Biol. Conserv. 44, 1–8.Google Scholar
  151. Villwock, W. (1972) Gefahren fur die endemische Fischfauna durch Einburgerungsversuche und Akklimatisation von Freindfischen am Beispiel des Titicaca-Sees (Peru-Bolivien) und des Lanao-Sees (Mindanao/Phillipinen).Verh. int. Verein. Limnol. 18, 1227–34.Google Scholar
  152. Weatherley, A.H. and Lake, J.S. (1967) Introduced fish in Australian inland waters. In Weatherley, A.H., ed.Australian Inland Waters and their Fauna. Canberra: Australia National Univ. Press, 217–39.Google Scholar
  153. Werner, E.E. and Hall, D.J. (1976) Niche shifts in sunfish: experimental evidence and significance.Science 191, 404–6.Google Scholar
  154. Wiens, J.A. (1979) On competition and variable enviroment.Am. Scient. 65, 590–97.Google Scholar
  155. Williamson, M.H., Kornberg, H., Holdgate, M.W., Gray, A.J. and Conway, G.R. (1986) The British contribution to the SCOPE Programme on the ecology of biological invasions.Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 314B, 503–4.Google Scholar
  156. Winfield, I.J. and Townsend, C.R. (1988) Factors affecting prey selection by young breamAbramis brama and roachRutilus rutilus: insights provided by parallel studies in laboratory and field.Env. Biol. Fishes,21, 279–92.Google Scholar
  157. Zaret, T.M. and Paine, R.T. (1973) Species introduction in a tropical lake.Science 182, 445–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Todd A. Crowl
    • 1
    • 2
  • Colin R. Townsend
    • 1
  • Angus R. Mcintosh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Fisheries and WildlifeUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations