Cannibalism in teleost fish

Summary

  1. 1.

    Cannibalistic behaviour in fish is reviewed here for the first time.

  2. 2.

    Cannibalism has been recorded in 36 out of 410 teleost families according to the published literature, but is considered to be more widespread than this. Finding examples of cannibalism is not difficult, and it may be more interesting to look for taxa in which the behaviour does not take place.

  3. 3.

    The families that have provided the most information include the Engraulididae, Esocidae, Poeciliidae, Gasterosteidae, Percidae and Cichlidae.

  4. 4.

    Cannibalism has been classified into seven types, depending on life-history stage, age difference between cannibal and prey, and whether or not they are related.

  5. 5.

    Although in captive populations, cannibalism tends to increase with increasing density and decreasing food availability, its role in population regulation has not been unequivocally demonstrated in any wild population, and obtaining the necessary data presents a formidable challenge to fish ecologists.

  6. 6.

    Cannibalism is of some economic importance in aquaculture, but its impact can be reduced relatively easily, by frequent grading to reduce size variability.

  7. 7.

    The main proximate advantage conferred by cannibalism is assumed to be nutritional. In an ultimate sense the behaviour may have evolved as a particularly effective competitive strategy.

  8. 8.

    Finally, it is considered that cannibalism deserves more attention from fish biologists. Investigations, however, should recognize the different types of cannibalistic interaction, and, in particular, should explore the different implications of kin and nonkin cannibalism

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Alm, G. (1946) Reasons for the occurrence of stunted fish populations: with special regard to the perch. Rep. Swedish State Inst. Freshwat. Fishery Res., Drottningholm 25, 1–146.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Balon, E.K. (1975) Reproductive guilds of fishes: a proposal and definition. J. Fish Res. Bd Can. 32, 821–64.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Banerji, S.R. and Prasad, D. (1974) Observations on reproduction and survival of Anabas testudinens (Bloch) in Bihar region. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 6, 6–17.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Barber, F.G. (1984) Experiment with pink salmon: barren streams, size selection in predation and in trolling. Tech. Rep. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 1258, 1–21.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Barlow, G.W. (1964) Ethology of the Asian teleost, Badis badis V. Dynamics of fanning and other parental activities, with comments on the behaviour of larvae and postalarvae. Z. Tierpsychol. 21, 19–123.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Belles-Isles, J., Cloutier, D. and FitzGerald, G.J. (1990) Female cannibalism and male courtship tactics in three-spine sticklebacks. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 26, 363–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Berrios-Hernandez, J.M. and Snow, J.R. (1983) Comparison of methods of reducing fry losses to cannibalism in tilapia production. Progve Fish Cult. 45, 116–18.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Blumer, L.S. (1979) Male parental care in bony fishes. Q. Rev. Biol. 54, 149–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bobisud, L.E. (1976) Cannibalism as an evolutionary strategy. Bull. math. Biol. 38, 359–68.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Braid, M.R. and Shell, E.W. (1981) Incidence of cannibalism among striped bass fry in an intensive culture system. Progve Fish Cult. 43, 210–2.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Breder, C.M. (1927) The fishes of the River Chucunaque drainage, eastern Panama. Bull. Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 57, 91–176.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Brownell, C.L. (1985) Laboratory analysis of cannibalism by larvae in the cape anchovy Engraulis capensis. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114, 512–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Brownell, C.L. (1987) Cannibalistic interactions among young anchovy: a first attempt to apply laboratory behavioural observations to the field. S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 5, 503–11.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bry, C. and Gillet, C. (1980) Reduction du cannibalisme precoce chez le brochet (Esox lucius) par isolement des fratries. Bull. fr. Piscic. 277, 142–53.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bulkey, R.V. (1970) Feeding interactions between adult bass and their offspring. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 99, 732–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bulman, C.M. and Blaber, S.J.M. (1986) Feeding ecology of Macruronus novaezelandiae (Hector) (Teleostei: Merlucciidae) in South-Eastern Australia. Aust. J. mar. Freshwat. Res. 37, 621–39.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Chang, B.D. and Liley, N.R. (1974) The effect of experience on the development of parental behaviour in the blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus. Can. J. Zool. 52, 1499–1503.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Chikova, V.M. (1970) The feeding of the perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.)) in the drawn-down zone of Kuybyshev Reservoir around the Dam. J. Ichthyol 10, 328–32.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Chua, T.E. and Teng, S.L. (1980) Economic production of estuary grouper, Epinephelus salmoides Maxwell, reared in floating net cages. Aquaculture 20, 187–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Coe, M.J. (1966) The biology of Tilapia grahami Boulenger in Lake Magadi, Kenya. Acta Trop. 23, 146–77.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Cook, R.M. and Armstrong, D.W. (1986) Stock-related effects in the recruitment of North Sea haddock and whiting. J. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer. 42, 272–80.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Craig, J.F. and Kipling, C. (1983) Reproduction effort versus the environment; case histories of Windermere perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and pike, Esox lucius L. J. Fish Biol. 22, 713–27.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Cuff, W.R. (1977) Initiation and control of cannibalism in larval walleyes. Progve Fish Cult. 39, 29–32.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Cuff, W.R. (1980) Behavioural aspects of cannibalism in larval walleye. Stizostedion vitreum. Can. J. Zool. 58, 1504–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Cushing, D.H. (1988) The study of stock and recruitment. In Gulland, J.A., ed. Fish Population Dynamics, 2nd edn. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 105–28.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Davis, T.L.O. (1985) The food of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch), in coastal and inland waters of Van Diemen Gulf and the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. J. Fish Biol. 26, 669–82.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Dawkins, R. (1976) The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 224 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  28. DeAngelis, D.L., Cox, D.K. and Coutant, C.C. (1979) Cannibalism and size dispersal in young-of-the-year largemouth bass: experiment and model. Ecol. Modelling 8, 133–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Degani, G. and Levanon, D. (1983) The influence of low density on food adaptation, cannibalism and growth of eels (Anguilla anguillas (L.)). Bamidgeh 35, 53–60.

    Google Scholar 

  30. DeMartini, E.E. (1987) Paternal defence, cannibalism and polygamy: factors influencing the reproductive success of painted greenling (Pisces, Hexagrammidae). Anim. Behav. 35, 1145–58.

    Google Scholar 

  31. DeNeff, S.J. and Villars, T.A. (1982) Filial cannibalism and nocturnal illumination in paradise fish, Macropodus opercularis. Behav. Neural Biol. 36, 295–7.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Dionne, M. (1985) Cannibalism, food availability, and reproduction in the mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis); a laboratory experiment. Am. Nat. 126, 16–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Dominey, W.J. (1981a) Anti-predator function of bluegill sunfish nesting colonies. Nature 290, 586–8.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Dominey, W.J. (1981b) The mating system of the bluegill sunfish (Centrarchidae: Lepomis macrochirus). PhD thesis, Cornell Univ. 134 pp.

  35. Dominey, W.J. and Blumer, L.S. (1984) Cannibalism of early life stages in fishes. In Hausfater, G. and Hrdy, S.B., eds. Infanticide. Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. New York: Aldine, pp. 43–64.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Downhower, J.F. and Brown, L. (1980) Mate preferences of female mottled sculpins, Cottus bairdi. Anim. Behav. 28, 728–34.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Dwyer, D.A., Bailey, K.M. and Livingston, P.A. (1987) Feeding habits and daily ration of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the Eastern Bering Sea, with special reference to cannibalism. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44, 1972–84.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Eschmeyer, P.H. (1950) The life-history of the walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchill), in Michigan. Mich. Dep. Conserv., Inst. Fish. Res. Bull. 3, 7–99.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Eyeson, K.N. (1983) Egg and fry swallowing habits of tilapia. Aquaculture 32, 415–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Fahrig, K.P. (1972) New research on fish cannibalism. Aquarium Digest 1, 5.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Feuth-de Bruijn, E. and Sevenster, P. (1983) Parental reactions to young in sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). Behaviour 83, 186–203.

    Google Scholar 

  42. FitzGerald, G.J. and vanHavre, N. (1987) The adaptive significance of cannibalism in sticklebacks. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 20, 125–8.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Folkvord, A. and Hunter, J.R. (1986) Size-specific vulnerability of northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, larvae to predation by fishes. Fish. Bull. Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Adm. (U.S.) 84, 859–69.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Forney, J.L. (1976) Year-class formation in the walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) population of Oneida Lake, New York, 1966–73. J. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 33, 783–92.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Foster, S.A., Garcia, V.B. and Town, M.Y. (1988) Cannibalism as the cause of an ontogenetic shift in habitat use by fry of the three spine stickleback. Oecologia 74, 577–85.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Fox, L.R. (1975) Cannibalism in natural populations. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 6, 87–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Fryer, G. and Iles, T.D. (1972) The Cichlid Fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. 641 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Fuiman, L.A. (1989) Vulnerability of Atlantic herring larvae to predation by yearling herring. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 51, 291–9.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Fujiya, M. (1976) Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) farming in Japan. J. Fish Res. Bd Can. 33, 911–15.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Giles, N., Wright, R.M. and Nord, M.E. (1986) Cannibalism in pike fry, Esox lucius L.: some experiments with fry densities. J. Fish Biol. 29, 107–13.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Gilmore, R.G. (1983) Observations on the embryos of the longfin mako, Isurus paucus and the bigeye thresher, Alopias supercilosus. Copeia 15, 375–82.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Gilmore, R.G., Dodrill, J.W. and Linley, P.A. (1983) Reproduction and embryonic development of the sand tiger shark, Odontaspis taurus (Rafinesque). Fish Bull. Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Adm. (U.S.) 81, 201–25.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Goldschmid, A. and Kotrschal, K. (1981) Feeding ecology of three populations of Blennius incognitus Bath 1968 (Pisces: Teleostei: Blennidae) during the reproductive period and under human influence. Mar. Ecol. 2, 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Goldspink, C.R. and Goodwin, D. (1979) A note on the age composition, growth rate and food of perch Perca fluviatilis (L.) in four eutrophic lakes, England. J. Fish Biol. 14, 489–505.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Grave, H. (1981) Food and feeding of mackerel larvae and early juveniles in the North Sea. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 178, 454–9.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Harris, J.G.K. (1975) The effect of density dependent mortality on the shape of stock-recruitment curve. J. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 36, 144–9.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Hastings, P.A. and Bortone, S.A. (1980) Observations on the life-history of the belted sandfish, Serranus subligarius (Serranidae). Env. Biol. Fishes 5, 365–74.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Hecht, T. and Appelbaum, S. (1988) Observations on intraspecific aggression and coeval sibling cannibalism by larval and juvenile Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae: Pisces) under controlled conditions. J. Zool. 214, 21–44.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Hill, L.G. (1969) Feeding and food habits of the spring cavefish, Chologaster agassizi. Amer. Midl. Nat. 82, 110–16.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Hislop, J.R.G. (1984) A comparison of the reproductive tactics and strategies of cod, haddock, whiting and Norway pout in the North Sea. In Potts, G.W. and Wootton, R.J., eds. Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics. London: Academic Press, pp. 311–29.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Hoelzer, G. (1988) Filial cannibalism in a non-brood cycling marine fish. Env. Biol. Fishes 21, 309–13.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Hourston, A.S., Rosenthal, H. and Kerri, S. (1981) Capacity of juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) to feed on larvae of their own species. Tech. Rep. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 1044, 1–25.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Hunt, B.P. and Carbine, W.F. (1951) Food of young pike Esox lucius L. and associated fishes in Peterson's ditches. Houghton Lake, Michigan, Trans. Am Fish. Soc. 80, 67–83.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Hunter, J.R. and Kimbrell, C.A. (1980) Egg cannibalism in the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax. Fish. Bull. Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Adm. (U.S.) 78, 811–16.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Hyatt, K.D. and Ringler, N.H. (1989) Egg cannibalism and the reproductive strategies of three spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a coastal British Columbia lake. Can. J. Zool. 67, 2036–46.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Johns, L.S. and Liley, N.R. (1970) The effects of gonadectomy and testosterone treatment on the reproductive behaviour of the male blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus. Can. J. Zool. 48, 977–87.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Jones, J.S. (1982) Of cannibals and kin. Nature 299, 202–3.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Karasiova, E.M. (1986) Cannibalism in blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou (Risso)) during the spawning period. ICES-CM-1987-H-29 (mimeo)

  69. Katavić, I., Jug-Dujaković, J. and Glamuzina, B. (1989) Cannibalism as a factor affecting the survival of intensively cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fingerlings. Aquaculture 77, 135–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Keenleyside, M.H.A. (1979) Diversity and Adaptation in Fish Behaviour. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 208 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Keenleyside, M.H.A., Bailey, R.C. and Young, V.H. (1990) Variation in the mating system and associated parental behaviour of captive and free-living Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Pisces, Cichlidae). Behaviour 112, 202–21.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Klingbiel, J.H. (1986) Culture of purebred muskellunge. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 15, 273–8.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Kodric-Brown, A. (1983) Determinants of male reproductive success in pupfish (Cyprinodon pecosensis). Anim. Behav. 31, 128–37.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Kramer, D.L. (1972) The role of androgens in the parental behaviour of the blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus (Pisces, Belontiidae). Anim. Behav. 20, 798–807.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Kramer, D.L. (1973) Parental behaviour in the blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus (Pisces: Belontiidae) and its induction during exposure to varying numbers of conspecific eggs. Behaviour 47, 14–32.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Kramer, D.L. and Liley, N.R. (1971) The role of spawning behaviour and stimuli from the eggs in the induction of a parental response in the blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus (Pisces, Belontiidae). Anim. Behav. 19, 87–92.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Kynard, B.E. (1978) Breeding behaviour of a lacustrine population of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). Behaviour 67, 178–207.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Lavery, R.J. and Keenleyside, M.H.A. (1990) Filial cannibalism in the biparental fish Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Pisces: Cichlidae) in response to early brood reductions. Ethology 86, 326–38.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Li, S.K. and Mathias, J.A. (1982) Causes of high mortality among cultured larval walleyes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 111, 710–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Li, S.K. and Owings, D.H. (1978) Sexual selection in the three-spined stickleback: II. Nest raiding during the courtship phase. Behaviour 64, 298–304.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Liebman, E. (1933) Some observations on the breeding habits of Palastine Cichlidae. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 1933, 885–8.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Lipskaya, N.Y. (1982) The feeding of larvae of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus (Scombridae), from the South-Eastern Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 22, 97–104.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Lleonart, J., Salat, J. and MacPherson, E. (1985) CVPA, an expanded VPA with cannibalism. Application to a hake population, Fish Res. 3, 61–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Loadman, N.L., Moodie, G.E.E. and Mathias, J.A. (1986) Significance of cannibalism in larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43, 613–18.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Loekle, D.M., Madison, D.M. and Christian, J.J. (1982) Time dependency and kin recognition of cannibalistic behaviour among poeciliid fishes. Behav. Neural Biol. 35, 315–18.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Loiselle, P.V. (1983) Filial cannibalism and egg recognition by males of the primitively custodial teleost Cyprinodon macularius californiensis Girard (Atherinomorpha: Cyprinodontidae). Ethol. Sociobiol. 4, 1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Lund, R. (1980) Viviparity and intrauterine feeding in a new holocephalan fish from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana. Science 209, 697–9.

    Google Scholar 

  88. MacCall, A.D. (1980) The consequences of cannibalism in the stock-recruitment relationship of planktivorous pelagic fishes such as Engraulis. In Sharp, G.D., ed. Workshop on the Effects of Environmental Variation on the Survival of Larval Pelagic Fishes. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Workshop 28. Paris: IOC/UNESCO, pp. 201–20.

    Google Scholar 

  89. McKaye, K.R. and Barlow, G.W. (1976) Chemical recognition of young by the midas cichlid, Cichlasoma citrinellum. Copeia. 1976, 276–82.

    Google Scholar 

  90. McKaye, K.R., Weiland, D.J. and Lim, T.M. (1979) Comments on the breeding biology of Gobiomorus dormitor (Osteichthyes: Eleotridae) and the advantage of schooling behaviour to its fry. Copeia 1979, 542–4.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Mann, R.H.K. (1982) The annual food consumption and prey preferences of pike (Esox lucius) in the River Frome, Dorset. J. Anim. Ecol. 51, 81–95.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Martin, J.D. (1987) Atlantic salmon and alewife passage at the fishway on the Magaguadavic River, New Brunswick, during 1984, Can. Manuscript Rep. Fish. aquat. Sci. No. 1938. 7 pp.

  93. Mathias, J.A. and Li, S. (1982) Feeding habits of walleye larvae and juveniles; comparative laboratory and field studies. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 111, 722–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Meffe, G.K. and Crump, M.L. (1987) Possible growth and reproductive benefits of cannibalism in the mosquitofish. Am. Nat. 129, 203–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Meffe, G.K. and Snelson, F.F. (1989) Ecology and Evolution of Livebearing Fishes (Poeciliidae). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 453 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Mehl, S. (1989) The northeast Arctic cod stock's consumption of commercially exploited prey species, 1984–1986. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 1988, 185–205.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Metzelaar, J. (1929) The food of the trout in Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 59, 146–52.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Möller, H. and Anders, K. (1986) Diseases and Parasites of Marine Fishes. Kiel: Verlag Möller. 365-pp.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Moore, W.S. and McKay, F.E. (1971) Coexistence in unisexual-bisexual species complexes of Poeciliopsis (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Ecology 52, 791–9.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Mrowka, W. (1987) Filial cannibalism and reproductive success in the maternal mouthbrooding cichlid fish Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 21, 257–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Munro, W.R. (1957) The pike of Loch Choin. Freshwat. Salm. Fish. Res. 16, 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Nelson, J.S. (1984) Fishes of the World. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 416 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Nickum, J.G. (1978) Intensive culture of walleyes; the state of the art. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 11, 187–94.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Nikolsky, G.V. (1974) The Ecology of Fishes. London: Academic Press. 352 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Nordeide, J.T. and Svasund, T. (1990) The behaviour of wild and reared juvenile cod, Gadus morhua, towards a potential predator. Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 21, 317–26.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Ochi, H. (1985) Termination of parental care due to small clutch size in the temperate damselfish, Chromis notata. Env. Biol. Fishes. 12, 155–60.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Oguto-Ohwayo, R. (1990) Changes in the prey ingested and the variations in the Nile perch and other fish stocks of Lake Kyoga and the northern waters of Lake Victoria (Uganda). J. Fish Biol. 37, 55–63.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Ohta, T. and Nakazono, A. (1988) Mating habits, mating system and possible filial cannibalism in the triplefin, Enneapterygius etheostomus. Proc. 6th Int. Coral Reef Symp. Australia, 1988 2, 797–801.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Olsén, K.H. (1989) Sibling recognition in juvenile Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.). J. Fish Biol. 34, 571–81.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Pantastico, J.B., Dangilan, M.M.A. and Eguia, R.V. (1988) Cannibalism among different sizes of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry/fingerlings and the effect of natural food. In Pullin, R.S.V., Bhukaswan, T., Tonguthai, K. and Maclean, J.L., eds. The Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, ICLARM Conference Proceedings. Manila, pp. 465–8.

  111. Patriquin, D.G. (1967) Biology of Gadus morhua in Ogac Lake, a landlocked fjord on Baffin Island. J. Fish Res. Bd Can. 24, 2573–94.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Petersen, C.W. (1990) The occurrence and dynamics of clutch loss and filial cannibalism in the Caribbean damselfishes. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 135, 117–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Petersen, C.W. and Marchetti, K. (1989) Filial cannibalism in the Cortez damselfish, Stegastes rectifraenum. Evolution. 43, 158–68.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Pitcher, T.J. (1986) Functions of shoaling behaviour in teleosts. In Pitcher, T.J., ed. The Behaviour of Teleost Fishes. London: Croom Helm, pp. 294–338.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Polis, G.A. (1981) The evolution and dynamics of intraspecific predation. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12, 225–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Qasim, S.Z. (1956) The spawning habits and embryonic development of the shanny (Blennius pholis L.). Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 127, 79–93.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Qasim, S.Z. (1957) The biology of Blennius pholis L. (Teleostei). Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 128, 161–209.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Quinn, T.P. and Busack, C.A. (1985) Chemosensory recognition of siblings in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorynchus kisutch). Anim. Behav. 33, 51–6.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Radovich, J. (1962) Effect of sardine spawingng stock size and environment on year class production. Calif. Fish Game 48, 123–40.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Ricker, W.E. (1954) Stock and recruitment. J. Fish Res. Bd Can. 11, 559–623.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Ridgway, M.S. and McPhail, J.D. (1988) Raiding shoal size and a distraction display in male sticklebacks (Gasterosteus). Can. J. Zool. 66, 201–5.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Riget, F.F., Nygaard, K.H. and Christensen, B. (1986) Population structure, ecological segregation and reproduction in a population of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Lake Tasersvaq, Greenland. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43, 985–92.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Riley, J.D. and Parnell, W.G. (1984) The distribution of young cod. In Dahl, E., Danielssen, D.S., Moksness, E. and Solemdal, P., eds. The Propagation of Cod, Gadus morhua L. Norway: Fløedevigen rapportser 1, 563–80.

  124. Rohwer, S. (1978) Parent cannibalism of offspring and egg-raiding as a courtship strategy. AM. Nat. 112, 429–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. Rose, S.M. (1959) Population control in guppies. Am. Midl. Nat. 62, 474–81.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Salfert, I.G. and Moodie, G.E.E. (1985) Filial egg-cannibalism in the brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans (Kirtland). Behaviour 93, 82–100.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Santander, H. (1987) Relationship between egg-standing stock and parent biomass off Peru, 4–14°S. In Pauly, D. and Tsukayama, I., eds. The Peruvian Anchoveta and its Upwelling Ecosystem: Three Decades of Change. (ICLARM Studies and Reviews, vol. 15.) Manila: ICLARM, pp. 179–207.

    Google Scholar 

  128. Schwanck, E. (1986) Filial cannibalism of Tilapia mariae. J. appl. Ichthyol. 2, 65–74.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Shapovalov, L. (1936) Food of the striped bass. Calif. Fish Game 22, 261–71.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Shirahata, S. (1964) On “cannibalism” in the rainbow trout fingerling, Salmo gairdneri irideus. Jap. J. Ecol. 14, 25–32.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Shirota, A. (1978) Studies on the mouth size of fish larvae. II. Specific characteristics of the upper jaw length. Bull. Jap. Soc. Scient. Fish. 44, 1171–7.

    Google Scholar 

  132. Shrivastava, N.P. and Desai, V.R. (1979) A case of cannibalism observed in Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton) from Rihand Reservoir (Uttar Pradesh). J. Inland Fish. Soc. India 11, 134–5.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Shumilov, I.P. (1971) Survival of eggs of the Baikal omul; (Coregonus autumnalis migratorius (Georgi)) in spawning grounds of the Kichera River and the effect of river flow on the strength of year-classes. J. Ichthyol. 11, 223–30.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Skurdal, J., Bleken, E. and Stenseth, N.C. (1985) Cannibalism in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Oecologia 67, 566–71.

    Google Scholar 

  135. Smith, C. (1989) An investigation into the problem of conspecific predation among the fry of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757) in an intensive culture system. MSc thesis, Plymouth Polytechnic. 134 pp.

  136. Smith, P.E., Santander, H. and Alheit, J. (1983) Comparison of egg sample probability distributions of the anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) off Peru and the anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and the sardine (Sardinops caerulea) off California. F.A.O. Fish Rep. 291(3), 1027–38.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Sparholt, H. (1985) The population, survival, growth, reproduction and food of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.) in four unexploited lakes in Greenland. J. Fish Biol. 26, 313–30.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Stenseth, N.C. (1985) On the evolution of cannibalism. J. Theor. Biol. 115, 161–77.

    Google Scholar 

  139. Taborsky, M. (1985) Breeder-helper conflict in a cichlid fish with broodcare helpers: an experimental analysis. Behaviour 95, 45–75.

    Google Scholar 

  140. Tarby, M.J. (1974) Characteristics of yellow perch cannibalism in Oneida Lake and the relation to first year survival. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 103, 462–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Teng, S.K., Akatsu, S., Al-Abdul-Elah, K.M., El-Zahr, C.R., Downing, N., Al-Marzouk, A. and Chazal, N. (1982) Spawning, fingerling production and market-size culture of sobaity (Acanthopagrus cuvieri) in Kuwait. A. Res. Rep. Kuwait Inst. Sci. Res. 1981, 66–70.

    Google Scholar 

  142. Thibault, R.E. (1974) Genetics of cannibalism in a viviparous fish and its relationship to population density. Nature 251, 138–40.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Ulltang, Ø. (1984) The management of cod stocks with special reference to growth and recruitment over fishing and the question whether artificial propagation can help solve management problems. In Dahl, E., Danielsson, D.S., Moksness, E. and Solemdal, P., eds. The Propagation of Cod, Gadus morhua L., Norway: Flødevigen rapportser 7, 795–817.

  144. Valdes, E.S., Shelton, P.A., Armstrong, M.J. and Field, J.G. (1987) Cannibalism in South African anchovy: egg mortality and egg consumption rates. S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 5, 613–22.

    Google Scholar 

  145. Valerio, M. and Barlow, G.W. (1986) Ontogeny of young Midas cichlids: a study of feeding, filial cannibalism and agonism in relation to differences in size. Biol. Behav./Biol. Comport. 11, 16–35.

    Google Scholar 

  146. vanDamme, P., Appelbaum, S. and Hecht, T. (1989) Sibling cannibalism in Koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., larvae and juveniles reared under controlled conditions. J. Fish Biol. 34, 855–63.

    Google Scholar 

  147. van denAssem, J.J.A. (1967) Territory in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. An experimental study in intraspecific competition. Behaviour (Supp.) 16, 1–164.

    Google Scholar 

  148. VanGroenewald, A.A.J. (1964) Observations on the food habits of Clarias gariepinus Burchell, the South African Freshwater barbel (Pisces: Clariidae) in Transvaal. Hydrobiologia 23, 287–91.

    Google Scholar 

  149. Vickery, W.L., Whoriskey, F.G. and FitzGerald, G.J. (1988) On the evolution of nest raiding and male defensive behaviour in sticklebacks. (Pisces: Gasterosteidae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 22, 185–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Warren, E.W. (1973) The establishment of a ‘normal’ population and its behavioural maintenance in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). J. Fish Biol. 5, 285–304.

    Google Scholar 

  151. Watson, R. (1989) Nile perch in Lake Victoria. Swara 12(6), 25–7.

    Google Scholar 

  152. Wattendorf, R.J. (1979) Cannibalism in elvers. Progve Fish Cult. 41, 218.

    Google Scholar 

  153. Welch, D.W. (1986) Identifying the stock-recruitment relationship for age-structured populations using time-invariant matched linear filters. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43, 108–23.

    Google Scholar 

  154. Werner, E.E. and Gilliam, J.F. (1984) The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15, 393–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  155. White, H.C. (1930) Some observations on the Eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) of Prince Edward Island. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 60, 101–8.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Whoriskey, F.G. and FitzGerald, G.J. (1985) Sex, cannibalism and sticklebacks. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18, 15–18.

    Google Scholar 

  157. Wootton, R.J. (1971) A note on the nest-raiding behaviour of male sticklebacks. Can. J. Zool. 49, 960–62.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Wootton, R.J. (1979) Energy costs of egg production and environmental determinants of fecundity in teleost fishes. Symp. zool. Soc. Lond. 44, 133–59.

    Google Scholar 

  159. Wootton, R.J. (1990) Ecology of Teleost Fishes. London: Chapman and Hall. 404 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  160. Wourms, J.P. (1977) Reproduction and development in chondrichthyan fishes. Am. Zool. 17, 379–410.

    Google Scholar 

  161. Wourms, J.P. (1981) Viviparity: The maternal-fetal relationship in fishes. Am. Zool. 21, 473–515.

    Google Scholar 

  162. Wourms, J.P., Stribling, M.D. and Atz, J.W. (1980) Maternal-fetal nutrient relationships in the coelacanth, Latimeria. Am. Zool. 20, 962.

    Google Scholar 

  163. Wourms, J.P., Hamlet, W.C. and Stribling, M.D. (1981) Embryonic oophagy and adelphophagy in sharks. Abstract No. 606. Am. Zool. 21, 1019.

    Google Scholar 

  164. Wourms, J.P., Grove, B.D. and Lombardi, J. (1988) The maternal-embryonic relationship in viviparous fishes. In Hoar, W.S. and Randall, D.J., eds. Fish Physiology, Vol. XI Part B. London: Academic Press, pp. 1–134.

    Google Scholar 

  165. Wright, R.M. (1990) The population biology of pike, Esox lucius L., in two gravel pit lakes, with special reference to early life history. J. Fish. Biol. 36, 215–29.

    Google Scholar 

  166. Wright, R.M. and Giles, N. (1987) The survival growth and diet of pike fry, Esox lucius L., stocked at different densities in experimental ponds. J. Fish Biol. 30, 617–29.

    Google Scholar 

  167. Zaret, T.M. (1977) Inhibition of cannibalism in Cichla ocellaris and hypothesis of predator mimicry among South American fishes. Evolution 31, 421–37.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Smith, C., Reay, P. Cannibalism in teleost fish. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 1, 41–64 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00042661

Download citation

Keywords

  • Food Availability
  • Wild Population
  • Population Regulation
  • Economic Importance
  • Teleost Fish