Skip to main content

Phenological characteristics of the tree layer of Kumaun Himalayan forests

Abstract

The phenology of tree components of natural forests occurring between 350 and 2150 m in Kumaun Himalaya is descibed. All forests had more evergreen than deciduous taxa. The degree of evergreenness increased with increasing elevation and decreasing summer dryness. For most species (including all dominants) concentrated leafdrop and simultaneous leafing occurred during the warm-dry period of the year. About half of the species showed multiple leafing.

All species had a sharp flowering peak in April. Wet-season flowering was rare. Most of the species flowered synchronously. In the sal- (Shorea robusta) and pine (Pinus roxburghii) forests a single peak of fruit maturation occurred in summer, while in other forests there also was a secondary peak in autumn.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Borchert, R., 1980. Phenology and Ecophysiology of Tropical Trees: Erythrinia poeppigiana O.F. Cook. Ecology 61: 1065–1074.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bray, J. R. & Curtis, J. T., 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecol. Monogr. 27: 325–349.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Curtis, J. T. & McIntosh, R. P., 1950. The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31: 438–455.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G. & Opler, P. A., 1974. Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and dry forests in lowlands of Costa Rica. J. Ecol. 62: 881–919.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Kramer, P. J. & Kozlowski, T. T., 1979. Physiology of woody plants. Academic Press, New York. San Francisco, London. 811 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Lieth, H., ed. 1974. Phenology and seasonality modeling Springer-Verlag-Berlin. Heidelberg, New York. 444 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Longman, K. A. & Jenik, J., 1974. Tropical forest and its environment. Longman. London and New York. 196 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Mueller-Dombois, D. & Ellenberg, H., 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 547 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Murray, C. & Miller, P. C., 1982. Phenological observations of major plant growth forms and species in montane and Eriphorum virginatum tussock tundra in Central Alaska. Holarctic Ecol. 5: 109–116.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Opler, P. A., Frankie, G. W. & Baker, H. G., 1980. Comparative phenological studies of treelet and shrub species in tropical wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. J. Ecol. 68: 167–188.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Osmaston, A. E., 1926. A forest flora for Kumaon. Intern. Book Distributors, Dehra Dun. 605 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Pandey, U. & Singh, J. S. 1981. A quantitative study of the forest floor, litter fall and nutrient return in an oak-conifer forest in Himalaya. I. Composition and dynamics of forest floor. Oecol. Gen. 2: 49–61.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Poole, R. W. & Rathcke, B. J., 1979. Regularity, randomness, and aggregation in flowering phenologies. Science. 203: 470–471.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Ralhan, P. K., Saxena, A. K. & Singh, J. S., 1982. Analysis of forest vegetation at and around Naini Tal in Kumaun Himalaya. Proc. Indian natn. Sci. Acad. B 48, 1: 121–137.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Saxena, A. K. & Singh, J. S., 1982a. A phytosociological analysis of woody species in forest communities of a part of Kumaun Himalaya. Vegetatio 50: 3–22.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Saxena, A. K. & Singh, J. S., 1982b. Quantitative profile structure of certain forests in the Kumaun Himalaya. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.) 91(6): 529–549.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Singh, J. S. & Chaturvedi, O. P., 1982. Photosynthetic pigments on plant bearing surfaces in Himalayas. Photosynthetica. 61(1): 101–114.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Singh, J. S. & Singh, S. P., 1984. An Integrated Ecological Study of Eastern Kumaun Himalaya with Emphasis on Natural Resources. Kumaun University, Naini Tal, India. Final report submitted to the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi. 2: 379 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Tewari, J. C., 1982. Vegetational analysis along altitudinal gradient around Naini Tal. Ph.D. Thesis, Kumaun University, Naini Tal. 570 pp.

  20. Thornthwaite, C. W., 1931. The climates of North America; according to a new classification. Geographical Review 21: 633–655.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Troup, R. S., 1921. The silviculture of Indian trees. I–III. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1195 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Upreti, N., 1982. A study on phytosiciology and state of regeneration of oak forests at Naini Tal. Ph.D. Thesis, Kumaun University, Naini Tal. 481 pp.

  23. Valdiya, K. S., 1980. Stratigraphic scheme of the sedimentary units of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. In: K. S. Valdiya & S. B. Bhatia (eds.) Stratigraphy and correlations of the Lesser Himalayan formations. Hindustan Publ. Corp., Delhi: 7–48.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Nomenclature generally follows Osmaston (1926), the authority is given where the species is mentioned first.

Financial support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is grategully acknowledged. We thank Dr. Y. P. S. Pangtey and Dr. J. C. Tewari for their help respectively in plant identification and ordination.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ralhan, P.K., Khanna, R.K., Singh, S.P. et al. Phenological characteristics of the tree layer of Kumaun Himalayan forests. Vegetatio 60, 91–101 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00040351

Download citation

Keywords

  • Flowering
  • Forest
  • Fruiting
  • Kumaun Himalaya
  • Leafdrop
  • Leaf flushing
  • Phenology
  • Phenological activity level
  • Treelayer phenology