The phenology of tree components of natural forests occurring between 350 and 2150 m in Kumaun Himalaya is descibed. All forests had more evergreen than deciduous taxa. The degree of evergreenness increased with increasing elevation and decreasing summer dryness. For most species (including all dominants) concentrated leafdrop and simultaneous leafing occurred during the warm-dry period of the year. About half of the species showed multiple leafing.
All species had a sharp flowering peak in April. Wet-season flowering was rare. Most of the species flowered synchronously. In the sal- (Shorea robusta) and pine (Pinus roxburghii) forests a single peak of fruit maturation occurred in summer, while in other forests there also was a secondary peak in autumn.
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Nomenclature generally follows Osmaston (1926), the authority is given where the species is mentioned first.
Financial support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is grategully acknowledged. We thank Dr. Y. P. S. Pangtey and Dr. J. C. Tewari for their help respectively in plant identification and ordination.
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Ralhan, P.K., Khanna, R.K., Singh, S.P. et al. Phenological characteristics of the tree layer of Kumaun Himalayan forests. Vegetatio 60, 91–101 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00040351
- Kumaun Himalaya
- Leaf flushing
- Phenological activity level
- Treelayer phenology