Skip to main content

Nori cultivation in North America: growth of the industry

Abstract

The cultivation of the red alga Porphyra in North America to produce the edible product ‘nori’ is now in its tenth year of development. Cultivation technology has been transferred and modified from Japan and Korea. Early efforts by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources indicated that cultivation is biologically feasible and could be economically viable. Commercial production has begun in Washington, U.S.A. and in British Columbia, Canada. Early products are of high quality. Constraints to more rapid development are institutional — obtaining necessary permits for use of water areas and financing is difficult.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Byce, W. J., T. F. Mumford, Jr., I. Inayoshi, D. J. Melvin & V. M. Bryant, 1984. Equipment for nori farming in Washington: Vol. I. Outdoor seeding. Vol. II. Nursery culture. Department of Natural Resources. Olympia, Washington, 157 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Byce, W. J., T. F. Mumford, I. Inayoshi, D. J. Melvin & V. M. Bryant, 1990. Techniques for nori farming in Washington: Part II. Anchoring, Part III. Outdoor seeding. Part IV. Nursery culture. Department of Natural Resources. Olympia, Washington, in press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Conway, E., T. F. Mumford, Jr. & R. F. Scagel, 1975. The genus Porphyra in British Columbia and Washington. Syesis 8: 185–244.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Dickson, L. G. & J. R. Waaland, 1984. Conchocelis growth sporulation and early blade development in Porphyra nereocystis. J. Phycol. (suppl.) 20: 13.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Dickson, L. G. & J. R. Waaland, 1985. Porphyra nereocystis: a dual-daylength seaweed. Planta (Berl.) 165: 548–553.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Garbary, D. J., G. I. Hansen & R. F. Scagel, 1980. The marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (red algae), Class Bangiophyceae. Syesis 13: 137–195.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Herbert, S. K. & J. R. Waaland, 1988. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis is a sun and a shade species of the red algal genus Porphyra. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 97: 1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Kramer, Chin & Mayo, Inc., 1982. Market analysis and preliminary economic analysis for products of the red seaweed Porphyra. Report to Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington, 240 pp.

  9. Kurogi, M., 1961. Yoshoku amanori no shurui to sono seikatsushi (amanori-rui no seikatsushi no Kenkyo) [Types of cultured Porphyra and their life history (Study of the life history of Porphyra report No. 2)] Tokohu Suisan Kenkyujo Kenkyu Hokoku (Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab.) 18: 1–115.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Lindstrom, S. C. & K. M. Cole, 1990. An evaluation of species relationships in the Porphyra perforata complex (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) using starch gel electrophoresis. Hydrobiologia 204/205 (Proc. int. Seaweed Symp. 13): 179–183.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Melvin, D. J., T. F. Mumford, W. J. Byce & V. M. Bryant, 1986. Equipment and techniques for nori farming in Washington: Vol. I. Conchocelis culture, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington, 67 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Mencher, F. M., R. B. Spencer, J. W. Woessner, S. J. Katase & D. K. Barclay, 1981. Growth of nori (Porphyra tenera) in an experimental OTEC-aquaculture system on Hawaii. unpubl. mss. to the Hawaii Sea Grant Program, 22 pp.

  13. Merrill, J. E., 1981. Nori cultivation: pilot farm planning: final report and summary. Report to Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington, 60 pp.

  14. Merrill, J. E., 1989. Commercial nori (Porphyra) sea farming in Washington State. Proceedings of COST 48 Workshop on Outdoor Seaweed Cultivation. April 20–24, 1989, Port Erin Marine Laboratory, Isle of Man.

  15. Merrill, J. E. & J. R. Waaland, 1988. Porphyra aquaculture In Washington State USA. J. Phycol. (suppl.) 24: 5.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Moss, J. R. & M. S. Doty, 1987. Establishing a seaweed industry in Hawaii: an initial assessment. Aquaculture Development Program of the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, 73 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Mumford, T. F., Jr., 1987a. Commercialization strategy for nori farming culture in Puget Sound, Washington. In K. T. Bird & P. H. Benson (eds), Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 351–368.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Mumford, T. F., Jr., 1987b. Report to the Washington State Legislature on the Department of Natural Resource's Seaweed Aquaculture Program. Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington, 43 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Mumford, T. F., Jr., 1988. Porphyra culture in the New World. Proceedings of the Aquaculture Congress and Exposition, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, September 6–9, 1988: 509–515.

  20. Mumford, T. F., Jr. & L. Hansen, 1987. A programmatic environmental impact assessment of nori farming in Washington. Dept. Nat. Res., Olympia, Washington. 33 pp. + appendices.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Mumford, T. F., Jr. & D. L. Melvin, 1984. Pilot scale mariculture of seaweeds in Washington. In: L. McKay (ed.), Seaweed Raft and Farm Design in the United States and China. SUNY at Stony Brook, N.Y., May 24–25, 1982, N.Y. Sea Grant Publication: 1–1–1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Mumford, T. F. & A. Miura, 1989. Porphyra as food: cultivation and economics. In C. A. Lembi & J. R. Waaland (eds), Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge Univ. Press, N.Y.: 87–117.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Mumford, T. F., Jr., J. R. Waaland, L. G. Dickson & D. J. Melvin, 1985. Porphyra aquaculture in the Pacific northwest. J. Phycol. (suppl.) 21: 7.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Waaland, J. R. & L. G. Dickson, 1983. Photoperiodic control of conchospore maturation and release in Porphyra abbottae and Porphyra perforata (Rhodophyta). J. Phycol. (suppl.) 19: 6.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Waaland, J. R. & L. G. Dickson, 1987. Preparation of Porphyra protoplasts. J. Phycol. (suppl.) 23: 13.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Waaland, J. R. & T. F. Mumford Jr., 1981. Cultivation of marine algae in Washington State USA. Abstracts of the 13th International Botanical Congress, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia, Aug. 21–28, p. 182.

  27. Waaland, J. R., L. G. Dickson & J. E. Carrier, 1987. Conchocelis growth and photoperiodic control of conchospore release in Porphyra torta (Rhodophyta). J. Phycol. 23: 399–40.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Waaland, J. R., L. G. Dickson & E. C. S. Duffield, 1984. Conchocelis growth in five Pacific Northwest Porphyra species. J. Phycol. (suppl.) 20: 21.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Waaland, J. R., L. G. Dickson & E. C. S. Duffield, 1990. Conchospore production and seasonal occurrence of some Porphyra species (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in Washington State. Hydrobiologia 204/205 (Proc. int. Seaweed Symp. 13): 453–459.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Waaland, J. R., L. G. Dickson & B. A. Watson, 1988. Propagation of Porphyra by protoplasts. J. Phycol (suppl.) 24: 20.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Waaland, J. R., L. G. Dickson, E. C. S. Duffield & G. M. Burzycki, 1986. Research on Porphyra aquaculture. In W. R. Barclay & R. P. Mcintosh (eds), Algal Biomass Technologies: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Workshop on the Present Status and Future Directions for Biotechnologies Based on Algal Biomass Production, Boulder, Colo., USA, Apr. 5–7, 1984. J. Cramer, Lehre, East Germany: 124–131.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Woessner, J., 1984. A final report on the commercial quality and value of nori produced in an OTEC-like system in Hawaii. Working Paper No. 53. Sea Grant Program, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 15 pp.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

This paper is dedicated to the memory of “Bud” Brinkhuis — friend and fellow phycologist who will be missed by all of us growing seawwees.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mumford, T.F. Nori cultivation in North America: growth of the industry. Hydrobiologia 204, 89–98 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00040219

Download citation

Key words

  • seaweed
  • cultivation
  • nori
  • Porphyra
  • Washington
  • British Columbia