Skip to main content

The utility of hill plots in oat research

Abstract

From 1955 through 1963, approximately 300,000 hill plots have been used in various experiments in the Iowa small grain research program. When grain yield, plant height, and heading date were measured on the same varieties, the genetic correlations between rod rows and hills were 0.98, 0.96 and 0.96, respectively.

The coefficients of variation for plant height, weight per volume, spikelets per panicle, panicles per plant, weight per 100 seeds were similar for rod rows and hills. However, the coefficients of variability for grain yield ranged from 2 to 5 times larger for hills than for rod rows. Competition between varieties in adjacent hills had little effect on the performance of varieties.

The best method for planting hill plots is the conventional method opening a hole in the soil about 2 inches deep with a hoe, pouring the seed in the hole, and covering it with soil. Rates of planting influenced the expression of grain yield, panicles per plant, and spikelets per panicle, but not weight per 100 seeds and plant height. Approximately 30 seeds per hill appeared the most desirable planting rate.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Bonnett, O. T. and W. M., Bever, Head-hill method of planting head selections of small grains. J.A.S.A. 39: 442–445. 1947.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Falconer, D. S., The problem of environment and selection. Amer. Nat. 86: 293–298. 1952.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Grafius, J. E. and H. M., Brown, Lodging resistance in oats. Agron. J. 46: 414–418. 1954.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Hayes, H. K., An experimental study of the rod-row method with spring wheat. J.A. S.A. 24: 950–960. 1932.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Hayes, H. K. and A. C., Arny, Experiments in field technique and rod rows. J. Agr. Res. 11: 399–419. 1917.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Hendriksen, A. J. Th., The maintenance of the winter wheat variety Alba in the Netherlands. Euphytica 5: 1–7. 1956.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Jellum, M. D., C. N., Brown and R. D., Seif, Hill and row plot comparisons for yield in oats. Crop Sci. 3: 194–196. 1963.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kiesselbach, T. A., Experimental errors in field trials. J.A.S.A. 11: 235–241. 1919.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kiesselbach, T. A., Plot competition as a source of error in crop tests. J.A.S.A. 11: 242–247. 1919.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Kiesselbach, T. A., R. J., Garber, S. C., Salmon, H. M., Steeve, C. A., Mooers, L. J., Stadler and J. W., White, Standardization of yield experiments. J.A.S.A. 25: 803–828. 1933.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Klages, K. H., The reliability of nursery tests as shown by correlated yields from nursery and field plots. J.A.S.A. 25: 464–472. 1933.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Love, H. H., The experimental error in field trials. J.A.S.A. 11: 212–216. 1919.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Love, H. H. and W. T., Craig, Method used and results obtained in cereal investigations at the Cornell station. J.A.S.A. 10: 145–157. 1918.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Love H. H. and W. T. Craig, Investigations in plot technique with small grains. Cornell Univ. Mem. 214. 1938.

  15. Montgomery E. G., Experiments in wheat breeding. Experimental error in the nursery and variation in introgen and yield. U.S.D.A. Bull. 269. 1913.

  16. Norton, J. B., Notes on breeding oats. Amer. Breeders Assoc. Rep. 4: 280–285. 1907.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Ross, W. M. and J. D., Miller, A comparison of hill and conventional yield tests using oats and spring barley. Agron. J. 47: 253–255. 1955.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Stadler L. J., Experiments in field plot technique for the preliminary determination of comparative yields of small grains. Mo. Agri. Expt. Sta. Res. Bull. 49. 1921.

  19. Taylor, F. W., The size of experimental plots for field crops. Proc. Amer. Soc. Agron. 1: 56–58. 1908.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Torrie, J. H., Comparison of hills and rows for evaluating soybean strains. Crop Sci. 2: 47–49. 1962.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Wiancko, A. P., S. C., Salmon and F. S., Harris, Report of the committee on standardization of field experiments. J.A.S.A. 10: 345–354. 1918.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Wiancko, A. P., S. C., Salmon, and A. C., Arny, Report of the committe on standardization of field experiments. J.A.S.A. 13: 368–374. 1921.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Authors

Additional information

Journal Paper No. J-5064 of the Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station, Ames, Iowa. Project No. 1176. Received for publication Febr. 23, 1965. In cooperation with the Crops Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Professor of farm crops.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Frey, K.J. The utility of hill plots in oat research. Euphytica 14, 196–208 (1965). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00038987

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00038987

Keywords

  • Plant Height
  • Genetic Correlation
  • Plot Size
  • Experimental Precision
  • Hill Plot