New Forests

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 345–361 | Cite as

Effects of paper mill sludge and weed control on competing vegetation and growth of young red pine

  • Michael J. Young
  • James E. Johnson
  • David A. Thiel


In September, 1988, a paper mill sludge from Georgia-Pacific Corporation's wastewater treatment facility in Port Edwards, WI., was applied to a 4- and 6-year-old red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Sludge was applied using industrial spreaders at rates of 0, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Twenty-one months following treatment, above-ground biomass production of sedge (Carex spp.), the predominant understory component, was increased by as much as 85% from the 40 Mg ha-1 rate relative to the control. The increase in dry matter production coincided with significant increases in above- and below-ground levels of N, P and K. Weed control performed in August, 1989, resulted in reduced levels of woody and herbaceous vegetation, without a concomitant effect on red pine performance. Possible reasons for this lack of response are discussed within this paper.

Key words

competition Garlontm Ousttm paper mill sludge Pinus resinosa Ait. waste disposal 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Young
    • 1
  • James E. Johnson
    • 2
  • David A. Thiel
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ForestryNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Department of ForestryVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.Georgia-Pacific CorporationPort EdwardsUSA

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