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Adventitions shoot formation on excised leaves of in vitro grown shoots of apple cultivars

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Leaves taken from micropropagated shoots of several apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were cultured in vitro on Linsmaier & Skoog (LS) medium or the rice anther culture medium of Chu et al. (N6) containing various concentrations of either benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) plus naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Of the TDZ concentrations tested, 10 μM was most effective and it was equivalent to, or better than, 22 μM BA for both the percentage of leaves regenerating shoots and number of shoots formed per regenerating leaf in almost every experiment. Lower concentrations of NAA (1.1 and 5.4 μM) gave best results with both BA and TDZ. N6 medium gave consistently better results than LS. Lowering total salt concentration or total N concentration of LS to that of N6 did not improve the response nor did changing the NO3:NH4 ratio. The 3–4 leaves on the most distal part of the shoot were most responsive and tended to form the most adventitious shoots. Placing the leaf cultures in the dark for the first 2–3 weeks of the culture period produced the best results. Optimum results were obtained by culturing leaves from the distal part of the shoot in the dark for 2 weeks on N6 medium containing 10 μM TDZ and 1.1 or 5.4 μM NAA, then moving the cultures to 16 h daylight at a photon flux of 60 μmol s-1m-2.

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Fasolo, F., Zimmerman, R.H. & Fordham, I. Adventitions shoot formation on excised leaves of in vitro grown shoots of apple cultivars. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 16, 75–87 (1989).

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