Skip to main content

Potential of somatic embryogenesis in Prunus avium immature zygotic embryos

Abstract

For the purpose of developing somatic embryogenesis in Prunus avium L., immature zygotic embryos, collected from five donor trees and sorted into two size classes (C1: 2.5–3.5 and C2: 3.6–4.5 mm), received various experimental treatments. When cultured for 10 days on an inductive medium containing 18.1 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) and 9.3 μM kinetin, then transferred to fresh medium without growth regulators, 2.5% of the C1 class cotyledons expressed direct somatic embryogenesis. C2 class cotyledons were less responsive. The response was also influenced by the chosen donor tree. In a few cases, spontaneous germination occurred. The presence of a root meristem was clearly demonstrated by histological examination of longitudinal sections. The replacement of half the amount of 2,4-d, present in the inductive medium mentioned above, by the same quantity of naphthaleneacetic acid reduced the incidence of somatic embryogenesis. Conversely, a rhizogenic response was strongly enhanced. When submitted to an inductive medium containing indoleacetic acid and zeatin without any subcultures for 3 months, C1 class cotyledons were the most morphogenic and developed leaves and cotyledon-like structures.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Abbreviations

BA:

6-benzyladenine

2,4-d :

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

IAA:

indoleacetic acid

IBA:

indolebutyric acid

NAA:

α-naphthaleneacetic acid

References

  1. Agresti A (1990) Categorial Data Analysis. John Wiley & Sons Inc (p. 558)

  2. Bonneau L, Beranger-Novat N, Martin-Tanguy J & Monin J (1990) Polyamines and somatic embryogenesis in spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus L.). The effects of difluromethylarginine and difluoromethylornithine. In: Flores HE, Arteca RN & Shannon JC (Eds) Polyamines and Ethylene: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Interactions (pp 363–367). American Society of Plant Physiologists, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park

    Google Scholar 

  3. Chalupa V (1990) Plant regeneration by somatic embryogenesis from cultured immature embryos of oak (Quercus robur L.) and linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) Plant Cell Rep. 9: 398–401

    Google Scholar 

  4. David H, Domon JM, Savy C, Miannay N, Sulmont G, Dargent R & David A (1992) Evidence for early stages of somatic embryo development in a protoplast-derived cell culture of Prunus avium. Physiol. Plant. 85: 301–307

    Google Scholar 

  5. De March G, Filloux D, Miannay N, Sulmont G, Grenier E & David A (1990) In vitro morphogenic responses of zygotic embryos in Prunus avium L. In: Le BiopôleVégétal (Ed) Seeds: Genesis of Natural & Artificial Forms-Biotechnologies '90; International Symposia in Picardie, Proceedings (pp 155–158). Le Biopôle, Amiens, France

    Google Scholar 

  6. Druart P (1981) Embryogenèse somatique et obtention de plantules chez Prunus incisa x serrula (GM9), cultivé in vitro. Bull. Rech. Gembloux 16: 205–220

    Google Scholar 

  7. Druart P (1990) Improvement of somatic embryogenesis of the cherry dwarf rootstock Inmil/GM9 by the use of different carbon sources. Acta Hort. 280: 125–127

    Google Scholar 

  8. Feucht W & Dausend D (1976) Root induction in vitro of easy-to-root Prunus pseudocerasus and difficult-to-root Prunus avium. Scienta Hort. 4: 49–54

    Google Scholar 

  9. Gabe M (1968) Les principes généraux de la technique histologique. In: Gabe M (Ed) Techniques Histologiques (pp 11–184). Masson et Cie, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  10. Geneve RL & Kester ST (1990) The initiation of somatic embryos and adventitious roots from developing zygotic embryo explants of Cercis canadensis L. cultured in vitro. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 22: 71–76

    Google Scholar 

  11. Hammerschlag FA, Bauchan G & Scorza R (1985) Regeneration of peach from calus derived from immature embryos. Theor. Appl. Genet. 70: 248–251

    Google Scholar 

  12. James DJ, Mackenzie KAD & Malhotra SB (1987) The induction of hexaploidy in cherry rootstocks using in vitro regeneration techniques. Theor. Appl. Genet. 73: 589–594

    Google Scholar 

  13. Jones OP, Gayner A & Watkins R (1984) Plant regeneration from callus tissue cultures of the cherry rootstock Colt (Prunus avium x P. pseudocerasus) and the apple rootstock M. 25 (Malus pumila). J. Hort. Sci. 59: 463–467

    Google Scholar 

  14. Krogstrup P (1986) Embryolike structures from cotyledons and ripe embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Can. J. For. Res. 16: 644–668

    Google Scholar 

  15. Lane WD & Cossio F (1986) Adventitious shoots from cotyledons of immature cherry and apricot embryos. Can. J. Plant Sci. 66: 953–959

    Google Scholar 

  16. Mante S. Scorza R & Cordts JM (1989) Plant regeneration from cotyledons of Prunus persica, Prunus domestica and Prunus cerasus. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 19: 1–11

    Google Scholar 

  17. Morel G & Wetmore RH (1951) Fern callus tissue culture. Amer. J. Bot. 38: 141–143

    Google Scholar 

  18. Murashige T & Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and biossays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15: 473–497

    Google Scholar 

  19. Ochatt SJ (1991) Strategies for plant regeneration from mesophyll protoplasts of the recalcitrant fruit and farm woodland species Prunus avium L. (Sweet/wild cherry), Rosaceae. J. Plant Physiol. 139: 155–160

    Google Scholar 

  20. Raj Bhansali R, Driver JA & Durzan DJ (1990) Rapid multiplication of adventitious somatic embryos in peach and nectarine by secondary embryogenesis. Plant Cell Rep. 9: 280–284

    Google Scholar 

  21. Riffaud JL & Cornu D (1981) Utilisation de la culture in vitro pour la multiplication de merisiers adultes (Prunus avium L.) sélectionnés en forê. Agronomie 1: 633–640

    Google Scholar 

  22. SAS Institute Inc (1988) SAS/STAT User's Guide Release 6.03 Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc (p. 1028)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Sotak RJ, Sommer HE & Merkle SA (1991) Relation of the developmental stage of zygotic embryos of yellow-poplar to their somatic embryogenic potential. Plant Cell Rep. 10: 175–178

    Google Scholar 

  24. Tulecke W & McGranahan G (1985) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from cotyledons of walnut, Juglans regia L. Plant Sci. 40: 57–63

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

De March, G., Grenier, E., Miannay, N. et al. Potential of somatic embryogenesis in Prunus avium immature zygotic embryos. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 34, 209–215 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00036104

Download citation

Key words

  • immature cotyledons
  • morphogenic response
  • Rosaceae