Canopy structures and its effect on shoot growth and flowering in subalpine forests

Abstract

Changes in foliage density distribution with altitude and its effect on shoot growth and flowering were studied in forest section planes (profiles) of subalpine forests and scrubs (Krummholz) in Nepal and Japan.

Patterns of foliage in forest canopy were evaluated by an analysis of variance. Foliage densities were very high at high altitude canopies, but the change in spatial patterns along altitude differs in both areas.

The spatial pattern of new shoot production was similar to that of current foliage density and was affected by the amount of foliage above the sample probably through light condition. Flowering of tall trees occurred in the surface of the upper canopy, but a shrub species flowered even under tree canopies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Aber J. D., Pastor J. & Melillo J. M. 1982. Changes in forest canopy structure along a site quality gradient in south Wisconsin. Am. Midl. Nat. 108: 256–265.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Appanah S. 1981. Pollination in Malaysian primary forests. Malaysian Forester 44: 37–42.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bell A. D. 1984. Dynamic morphology: a contribution to plant population ecology. In: Dirzo R. & Sarukhán J. (eds), Perspectives on plant population ecology, pp 48–65. Sinauer. Sunderland.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Dobremez, J. F. & Shrestha, T. B. 1976. Ecological map of Nepal, Jumla-Saipal 1/250000.

  5. Good R. 1974. The geography of the flowering plants. 4th ed. Longmans Green and Co. London.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Hallé F., Oldeman R. A. A. & Tomlinson P. B. 1978. Tropical trees and forests. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Kira T. & Shidei T. 1967. Primary production and turnover of organic matter in different forest ecosystems of the Western Pacific. Jap. J. Ecol. 17: 70–87.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Koike F. 1985. Reconstruction of two-dimensional tree and forest canopy profiles using photographs. J. Appl. Ecol. 22: 921–929.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Koike F. 1986. Canopy dynamics estimated from shoot morphology in an evergreen broad-leaved forest. Oecologia 70: 348–350.

    Google Scholar 

  10. MacArthur R. H. & Horn H. S. 1969. Foliage profile by vertical measurements. Ecology 50: 802–804.

    Google Scholar 

  11. MacArthur R. H. & MacArthur J. W. 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology 42: 594–598.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Samejima J., Sato Y., Shimizu M., Samejima K. & Nakamura K. 1981. (Forest vegetation.) In: Report of synthetic survey of the Shiretoko Peninsula, pp. 22–122. Hokkaido Government. Sapporo. (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  13. SAS. 1982. SAS user's guide: Statistics. SAS Institute. Cary, North Carolina.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Sato K. 1981. (Alpine vegetation) In: Report of synthetic survey of the Shiretoko Peninsula, pp. 123–173. Hokkaido Government. Sapporo. (in Japanese).

    Google Scholar 

  15. Shrestha T. B. 1982. Ecology and vegetation of north-west Nepal. Royal Nepal Academy. Kathmandu.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Stainton J. D. A. 1972. Forests of Nepal. John Murray. London.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Tranquillini W. 1979. Physiological ecology of the alpine timberline. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Werger M. J. A., Dusink E. M. & Fliervoet L. M. 1986. Types of phytomass — and leaf area index profiles in grassland vegetation. Vegetatio 65: 39–45.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Wang Chi-Wu. 1961. The forest of China. Harvard University. Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Yumoto T. 1987. Pollination systems in a warm temperate evergreen broad-leaved forest on Yaku Island. Ecol. Res. 2: 133–145.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Koike, F., Tabata, H. & Malla, S.B. Canopy structures and its effect on shoot growth and flowering in subalpine forests. Vegetatio 86, 101–113 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00031726

Download citation

Keywords

  • Analysis of variance
  • Foliage density
  • Japan
  • Krummholz
  • Nepal
  • Tree limit