, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 43–58 | Cite as

Inorganic chemical investigations in the Forest Biosphere Reserve near Kalinin, USSR

III. Comparison of the multielement budget with a forest ecosystem in Germany—aspects of rejection, indication and accumulation of chemical elements
  • B. Markert
  • W. Wtorova


About 50 naturally occurring chemical elements were quantitatively determined by AAS, ICP/AES, ICP/MS and INAA in the main vegetation cover of the Forest Biosphere Reserve near Kalinin, USSR. The lichen Hypogymna physodes, which was studied and compared with other plant species, accumulates the elements Al, As, Br, Ce, Co, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Pb, Pr, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Tm, V, Zn, and Zr. At the same time, a depletion of the alkaline elements Na, K, Rb, and Cs and the alkaline earth elements Mg and Ca is to be observed. Within the moss cover certain heavy metals are also accumulated by Polytrichum commune and the various Sphagnum species. As in Hypogymna physodes there is also a pronounced depletion of the alkaline earth metals Mg and Ca, but contrary to Hypogymna physodes there is a simultaneous accumulation of the alkaline metals K and Rb in Polytrichum commune and additionally of Na in the Sphagnum species. This is in agreement with studies showing different behaviour for the element potassium in Polytrichum formosum in the course of several vegetation periods. Potassium accumulation was found at the beginning of the vegetation period contrary to the dilution effect due to biomass supply. The depletion of Mg and Ca in all accumulator plants seems to be a direct consequence of heavy metal concentration since this phenomenon occurs irrespective of the site, as was shown by a comparison with data from a German forest ecosystem (Grasmoor near Osnabrück). Clear bioindication behaviour of Polytrichum commune, the various Sphagnum mosses and Hypogymna physodes was found for the elements Mn, Ni, Sn, Th, Cr, Mo, and S since the same accumulation and depletion behaviour was observed for all three plants as a function of site. These plant species could thus be used as bioindication cadasters in the sense of ARNDT. The higher shrub plants examined (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus) show the already known accumulation of the elements Ba and Mn (up to 4000 mg/kg of Mn for Vaccinium myrtillus). In general the concentration ranges for many elements are more restricted in higher plants.


Multi element analysis Accumulation Rejection Indication Element concentration cadasters Ecosystem analysis 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Markert
    • 1
  • W. Wtorova
    • 2
  1. 1.Systems Research GroupUniversity of OsnabrückOsnabrückFRG
  2. 2.Laboratory of General EcologyMoscowUSSR

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