Birds possess fast metabolism, and therefore they ingest and egest relatively large quantities of organic materials. Effects on the eutrophication depend on the site where they release their excrements. Mallards were studied as model animal to evaluate this process. Mallards of different ages have different ecological roles. In the beginning of their individual life they reduce the trophic level but later they contribute to the eutrophication processes.
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Gere, G., Andrikovics, S. Feeding of ducks and their effects on water quality. Hydrobiologia 279, 157–161 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00027850