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Restoration of Botshol (The Netherlands) by reduction of external nutrient load: recovery of a characean community, dominated by Chara connivens

Abstract

Till about 1965 a rich characean community occurred in the shallow peat lake Botshol with six species of which the rare Nitellopsis obtusa and Chara major dominated at many sites. In the period 1980–1988 characean biomass strongly decreased and only two species, Chara globularis and C. connivens, remained in small populations at a few localities. Of the macrophyte Najas marina also some small populations remained, while the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica and the filamentous alga Vaucheria dichotoma predominated at many sites. These phenomena may have been due to eutrophication by the input of polluted water. This process of impoverishment was stopped by restoration measures in 1989, resulting in a lower phosphorus concentration (ca 25 µg l-1) and a higher water transparency. Immediately after these measures the Characeae community increased in abundance and number of species. During the summer of 1990, and especially 1991, a spectacular growth occurred of Chara connivens. C. connivens was often accompanied by C. major. Other species with scattered occurrence were C. aculeolata, C. aspera, C. contraria and C. globularis. The reasons for the shift in dominance from Nitellopsis obtusa to Chara connivens are discussed. From growth experiments evidence was obtained that neither the recent higher chloride level, nor the lowered phosphate concentration were the main factors for the domination of Chara connivens.

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Simons, J., Ohm, M., Daalder, R. et al. Restoration of Botshol (The Netherlands) by reduction of external nutrient load: recovery of a characean community, dominated by Chara connivens . Hydrobiologia 275, 243–253 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00026715

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Key words

  • Shallow lake restoration
  • recolonisation
  • Chara connivens
  • C. globularis
  • C. major
  • Nitellopsis obtusa
  • Fontinalis antipyretica
  • Vaucheria dichotoma
  • growth experiments
  • phosphate
  • nitrate
  • ammonium
  • chloride