, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 33–47 | Cite as

Classification of landraces and improved cultivars of hexaploid wheats (Triticum aestivum, T. compactum and T. spelta) grown in the USA and described in 1922

  • Anton C. Zeven
  • Theo J. L. van Hintum


In 1922 Clark, Martin and Ball published descriptions of 207 hexaploid wheat landraces and improved cultivars, collected in the USA: 189 bread wheat accessions (Triticum aestivum), 24 club wheats (T. compactum) and four spelt wheats (T. spelta). After omitting 24 bread wheat accessions with identical descriptions as other accessions, the descriptions were used here to classify the remaining 183 accessions into five clusters on the basis of 10 selected characters. Clusters 1 and 3 include mainly accessions introduced from North and West Europe. These accessions must derive from the European Zeeuwse and Gelderse landrace groups. Hence most of the accessions belonging to these two clusters belong to the North and West European heritage. Cluster 2 includes most of the accesions introduced from Australia and Canada, or belonging to the club wheats. Most accessions from the USSR1 are included in cluster 4. Here we also find Turkey and related landraces. All but one pubescent accessions are included in cluster 5.

The wide variation of US wheats, described in 1922, forms the basis of the Foundation Germplasm wheats as defined by Cox (1991). Apparently no hard white winter wheat landraces and cultivars were described.

Key words

Triticum aestivum bread wheat Triticum compactum club wheat Triticum spelta spelt wheat classification genetic diversity landraces cultivars USA 



soft white spring


soft white winter


soft red spring


soft red winter


hard white spring


hard red spring


hard red winter


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anton C. Zeven
    • 1
  • Theo J. L. van Hintum
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding (I.v.P.)Agricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO)Centre for Genetic Resources The NetherlandsWageningenThe Netherlands

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