Two histone H3 and two histone H4 genes have been cloned from a λgtWESλ·B Arabidopsis thaliana gene library. From their nucleotide sequences and from studies on their genomic organization, the following conclusions can be drawn:
The nucleotide sequences of the two H3 coding regions show only 85% homology, but encode the same proteins. The Arabidopsis H3 has the same amino acid sequence as its counterpart in corn, but differs from that of pea and wheat by replacement in position 90 of a serine by an alanine. The two H4 coding regions have 97% sequence homology and encode the same protein, identical to the sequence of their counterpart in pea, corn and one H4 variant in wheat.
The 5′-flanking regions of the 4 genes contain the classical histone-gene-specific consensus sequences, except H3A725 which lacks the GATCC-like pentamer. The conserved octanucleotide 5′-CGCGGATC-3′ which was previously found in the 5′-flanking sequences of corn and wheat H3 and H4 genes is also present in all four genes described here approximately 200 to 250 nucleotides upstream from the initiation ATG.
The 5′-flanking regions of the H4 genes display extensive sequence homology, whereas those of the H3 genes do not.
The 3′-flanking regions do not possess the classical histone-gene-specific T hyphenated dyad symmetry motif.
Each H3 and H4 gene exists as 5 to 7 copies per haploid genome.
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Chaboute, ME., Chaubet, N., Philipps, G. et al. Genomic organization and nucleotide sequences of two histone H3 and two histone H4 genes of Arabidopsis thaliana . Plant Mol Biol 8, 179–191 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00025329
- Arabidopsis thaliana
- codon usage
- genomic organization
- histone gene