Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 41, Issue 1–4, pp 127–145 | Cite as

A review of hybridization in marine angelfishes (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae)

  • Richard L. Pyle
  • John E. Randall


Although hybridization of terrestrial and freshwater organisms has been well-studied, very little work has focused on hybridization among coral reef fish species. In the present paper, eleven examples of probable hybrids between marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae) are reviewed. Evidence is presented which strongly suggests that the nominal speciesApolemichthys armitagei is invalid and that specimens previously identified as this species represent hybrids betweenA. trimaculatus andA. xanthurus. Of the remaining ten probable pomacanthid hybrids, five are inCentropyge (C. eibli x C. flavissimus, C. eibli x C. vrolikii, C. flavissimus x C. vrolikii, C. loricu0lus x C. potteri, andC. multifasciatus x C. venustus); one inHolacanthus (H. bermudensis x H. ciliaris), and four inPomacanthus (P. arcuatus x P. paru, P. chrysurus x P. maculosus, P. maculosus x P. semicirculatus, andP. sexstriatus x P. xanthometapon). An additional five examples of possible pomacanthid hybrids are described, two inCentropyge, two inChaetodontoplus and one inPomacanthus. Examination of hybrids may provide clues on reproductive behavior, dispersal capabilities, and phylogenetic relationships of species. More studies on hybridization in coral reef fish species, particularly those involving molecular techniques, are needed.

Key words

Coral reef fish Behavioral ecology Mate-choice Protogyny Polygyny Zoogeography 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Allen, G.R. 1979. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 149–352 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, G.R. 1986. Appendix butterfly and angelfishes of the world — vol. 2. Mergus Publishers Hans A. Baensch, Melle. 7 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, G.R. & R.C. Steene. 1979. The fishes of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Australian Government Publishing service, Canberra. 81 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Anon. 1989. Message of explanation from newly arrived fish. Trop. Mar. Aquar. 25 (Summer 1989):48–49. (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, R.M., J.E. Fitch, E.S. Herald, E.A. Lachner, C.C. Lindsey, C.R. Robins & W.B. Scott. 1970. A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada (third edition). Spec. Publ. Amer. Fish. Soc. 6:1–150.Google Scholar
  6. Barton, N.H. & K.S. Gale. 1993. Genetic analysis of hybrid zones. pp. 13–45.In.: R.G. Harrison (ed.) Hybrid zones and the evolutionary process, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Burgess, W.E. 1974. Une forme atypique deChaetodon de Cey-Ian. Rev. fr. Aquariol. 2: 37–40.Google Scholar
  8. Burgess, W.E. 1978. Butterflyfishes of the world. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City. 832 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Burgess, W.E. 1991. Two new genera of angelfishes, family Pomacanthidae. Trop. Fish Hobbyist, 39 7: 68–70.Google Scholar
  10. Clavijo, I.E. 1985. A probable hybrid butterflyfish from the western Atlantic. Copeia 1985: 235–238.Google Scholar
  11. Condé, B. 1990. Elevage et évolution d'un hybride présumé; entrePomacanthops maculosus etP. semicirculatus (Perciformes, Pomacanthidae). Rev. fr. Aquariol. 16 4: 117–122.Google Scholar
  12. Debelius, H. 1993. Indian Ocean tropical fish guide. Aquaprint, Neu Isenberg. 321 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Dinesh, K.R., T.M. Lim, K.L. Chua, W.K. Chan & V.P.E. Phang. 1993. RAPD analysis: an efficient method of DNA fingerprinting in fishes. Zool. Sci. 10: 849–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Feddern, H.A. 1968. Hybridization between the western Atlantic angelfishes,Holacanthus isabelita andH. ciliaris. Bull. Mar. Sci. 18: 351–382.Google Scholar
  15. Grant, P.R. & B.R. Grant. 1992. Hybridization of bird species. Science 256: 193–197.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison, R.G.brid zones and the evolutionary process. Oxford University Press, New York. 364 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Heemstra, P.C. 1984.Apolemichthys kingi, a new species of angelfish (Pomacanthidae) from South Africa, with comments on the classification of angelfishes and a checklist of the pomacanthids of the western Indian Ocean. Spec. Publ. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichth. 35: 1–17.Google Scholar
  18. Hubbs, C.L. 1961. Isolating mechanisms in the speciation of fishes. Univ. of Texas Symp. Vertebrate Speciation: 5–23.Google Scholar
  19. Kosaki, R.K. & D. Toyama. 1987. Gold morphs inCentropyge angelfish. Freshwater Mar. Aquar. 10 7: 8–11.Google Scholar
  20. Kosaki, R.K., R.L. Pyle, J.E. Randall & D.K. Irons. 1991. New records of fishes from Johnston Atoll, with notes on biogeography. Pac. Sci. 45: 186–203.Google Scholar
  21. Krupp, F. & H. Debelius. 1990. The hybrid ofCentropyge multifasciatus x Holacanthus venustus from the Philippines and notes on aberrant colour forms ofCentropyge multispinis from the Maldives and the Red Sea. Rev. fr. Aquariol. 17 2: 53–56.Google Scholar
  22. Kuiter, R.H. 1992. Tropical reef-fishes of the western Pacific, Indonesia, and adjacent waters. Garmedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta. 314 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Longley, W H. & S.F. Hildebrand. 1941. Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florida. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 535. 331 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Lutnesky, M.M.F. 1992a. Behavioral ecology of reproduction in the pomacanthid angelfishCentropyge potteri. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 155 pp.Google Scholar
  25. Lutnesky, M.M.F 1992b. A temporal-threshold model of polygynous mating in cyclical environments. Amer. Nat. 139: 1102–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lutnesky, M.M.F. 1994. Density-dependant protogynous sex change in territorial-haremic fishes: models and evidence. Behavioral Ecology (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno & T. YoshinoUniversity Press, Tokyo. 437 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Maugé, L.A. & J.E. Randall. 1979. A propos d'une forme aberrante dePygoplites diacanthus (Boddaert,1772) Pisces: Pomacanthidae. Rev. fr. Aquariol. 6 4: 97–100.Google Scholar
  29. Meyer, K.A. 1977. Reproductive behavior and patterns of sexuality in the Japanese labrid fishThalassoma cupido. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 24: 101–112.Google Scholar
  30. Moe, M.A., Jr. 1976. Rearing Atlantic angelfish. Mar Aquarist 7 7: 17–26.Google Scholar
  31. Moe, M.A. 1990. The invisible nursery. Sea Frontiers 36 3: 28.Google Scholar
  32. Moyer, J.T. 1981. Interspecific spawning of the pygmy angelfishesCentropyge shepardi andC. bispinosus at Guam. Micronesica 12 1–2: 119–124.Google Scholar
  33. Moyer, J.T. 1989. On the blinding nature of experience: how many species of pygmy angelfishes are there? Trop. Fish Hobbyist 37 7: 86–96.Google Scholar
  34. Moyer, J.T. 1990. Social and reproductive behavior ofChaetodontoplus mesoleucus (Pomacanthidae) at Bantayan Island, Philippines, with notes on pomacanthid relationships. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 36: 459–467.Google Scholar
  35. Moyer, J.T. & A. Nakazono. 1978. Population structure, reproductive behavior, and protogynous hermaphroditism in the angelfishCentropyge interruptus at Miyake-jima, Japan. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 25: 25–39.Google Scholar
  36. Myers, R.F. 1989. Micronesian reef fishes. Coral Graphics, GMF, Guam. 298 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Nichols, J.T. & L.L. Mowbray. 1914. A new angel-fish (Angelichthys townsendi) from Key West. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 33 37: 581–583.Google Scholar
  38. Pyle, R.L. 1989. Rare and unusual marines: the armitage angelfishApolemichthys armitagei Smith. Freshwater Mar. Aquar. 12 4: 26–27.Google Scholar
  39. Pyle, R.L. 1992a. Rare and unusual marines: a hybrid angelfishCentropyge flavissimus x eibli. Freshwater Mar. Aquar. 15 3: 98–110, 212.Google Scholar
  40. Pyle, R.L. 1992b. Rare and unusual marines: another hybrid angelfishCentropygeloriculus x potteri Freshwater Mar. Aquar. 15 8: 40–45.Google Scholar
  41. Pyle, R.L. & J.E. Randall. 1993. A new species ofCentropyge from the Cook Islands, with a redescription ofCentropyge boylei. Rev. fr. Aquariol. 19 4: 115–124.Google Scholar
  42. Randall, J.E. 1956.Acanthurus rackliffei, a possible hybrid surgeonfish (A. achilles x A. glaucopareius) from the Phoenix Islands. Copeia 1956: 21–25.Google Scholar
  43. Randall, J.E. 1992. Divers guide to fishes of Maldives. IMMEL Publishing, London. 193 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen & R.C. Steene. 1977. Five probable hybrid butterflyfishes of the genusChaetodon from the central and western Pacific. Rec. West. Austral. Mus. 6: 3–26.Google Scholar
  45. Randall, J.E. & R.C. Anderson. 1993. Annotated checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Maldive Islands. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. Bull. 59: 1–47.Google Scholar
  46. Randall, J.E. & D. Fridman. 1981.Chaetodon auriga x Chaetodon fasciatus, a hybrid butterflyfish from the Red Sea. Rev. fr. Aquariol. 7 4: 113–116.Google Scholar
  47. Randall, J.E., P.S. Lobel & E.H. Chave. 1985. Annotated checklist of the fishes of Johnston Atoll. Pac. Sci. 39: 24–80.Google Scholar
  48. Randall, J.E. & L.A. Maugé. 1978.Holacanthus guezei, a new angelfish from Réunion. Bull. Mus. natn. Hist nat. Paris. 353 514: 297–303.Google Scholar
  49. Randall, J.E. & F. Yasuda. 1979.Centropyge shepardi, a new angelfish from the Mariana and Ogasawara Islands. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 26: 55–61.Google Scholar
  50. Reese, E.S. 1975. A comparative field study of the social behaviour and related ecology of reef fishes of the family Chaetodontidae. Z. Tierpsychol. 37: 37–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Robins, C.R., G.C. Ray & J. Douglass. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 354 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Sano, M., K. Okuzawa, T. Yamakawa & K. Mochizuki. 1984. A probable hybrid butterflyfish of the genusChaetodon from the Ogasawara Islands. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 31: 79–82.Google Scholar
  53. Schwartz, F.J. 1972. World literature to hybrids, with analysis by family, species, and hybrid. Publ. Gulf Coast Res. Lab. Mus. 3: 1–328.Google Scholar
  54. Shirai, S. 1986. Ecological encyclopedia of the marina animals of the Indo-Pacific, Vol. 1: Vertebrata. Shin Nippon Kyoiku, Tosho Co., Okinawa. 352 pp.Google Scholar
  55. Slastenenko, E.P. 1957. A list of natural fish hybrids of the world. Hidrobiologi, ser. B, 4 2–3: 76–97.Google Scholar
  56. Smith, J.L.B. 1955. The fishes of the family Pomacanthidae in the western Indian Ocean. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 8 12: 377–384.Google Scholar
  57. Steene, R.C. 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Volume 1. A.H. & A.W Reed Pty Ltd, Sydney. 144 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Takeshita, G.Y. 1976. An angel hybrid. Mar. Aquarist 7 1: 27–35.Google Scholar
  59. Takeuchi, K. 1984. Paradise of the Indian Ocean: diving in the Maldives Archipelago. Trop. Mar. Aquar. 11 Winter 1985: 311. (In Japanese).Google Scholar
  60. Thresher, R.E. 1984. Reproduction in reef fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City. 399 pp.Google Scholar
  61. Trivers, R.L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection. pp. 136–179.In: B. Campbell (ed.) Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971. Adine-Atherton, Chicago.Google Scholar
  62. Wedge, J.M. 1984. The mating game. Sea Frontiers 30 5: 308–311.Google Scholar
  63. Yasuda, F. & Y. Tominaga. 1976. A new pomacanthid fish,Chaetodontoplus caeruleopunctatus, from the Philippines. Japan. J. Ichthyol. 23: 130–132.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. Pyle
    • 1
  • John E. Randall
  1. 1.Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Box 19000-AHonoluluU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations