Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 255–262 | Cite as

Biological and water quality effects of artificial mixing of Arbuckle Lake, Oklahoma, during 1977

  • Dale W. Toetz
Article

Abstract

This paper describes the effects of total lake mixing with 16 axial flow (Garton) pumps on the water quality, algal biomass and community metabolism of Arbuckle Lake, Oklahoma.

Pumping began on July 1, 1977, and subsequently lowered the thermocline throughout the lake. The concentration of dissolved oxygen rose in formerly anoxic strata. Water quality in the former hypolimnion improved. Concentration of ammonia and BOD5 decreased, and concentrations of manganese remained unchanged in 1977 compared to the control year (1976). But, concentrations of sulfide in the hypolimnion were higher in 1977 than in 1976. Algal biomass as chlorophyll a was about the same in 1977 as in 1978. The depth of the Secchi disc was also the same. An algal bloom did not occur. Pumping decreased the ratio gross production: community respiration as measured by a free water method, suggesting that lakes which are artificially mixed will have lower net primary productivities than lakes which are not artificially mixed.

Keywords

Artificial destratification lake mixing water quality water chemistry algal biomass chlorophyll a community metabolism reservoir Oklahoma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Public Health Association. 1965. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, New York. 769 p.Google Scholar
  2. Brezonik, P., Delfino, J. & Lee, G. 1969. Chemistry of N and Mn in Cox Hollow Lake, Wisconsin, following destratification. J. Sanit. Eng. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Engrs. 95 (SA5): 929–940.Google Scholar
  3. Bryan, J. 1965. Improvements in the quality of reservoir discharges through reservoir mixing and aeration. Symposium on stream flow regulation for quality control. U.S. Public Health Serv. Publ. No. 999-WP-30 Cincinnati, Ohio. pp. 317–334.Google Scholar
  4. Carroll, J. 1975. A comparison of two in situ methods for determining community metabolism of lakes and horizontal variation of primary production in Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma. M. S. Thesis. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. 47 p.Google Scholar
  5. Drury, D., Porcella, D. & Gearheart, R. 1975. The effects of artificial destratification on the water quality and microbial populations of Hyrum reservoir. PRJEWOLL-I. Utah Water Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, Utah State University. Logan. 174 p.Google Scholar
  6. Fast, A., Moss, B. & Wetzel, R. 1973. Effects of artificial aeration on the chemistry and algae of two Michigan lakes. Water Resources Research. 9: 624–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haynes, R. 1973. Some ecological effects of artificial circulation on a small eutrophic New Hampshire lake with particular emphasis on phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia. 43: 463–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hooper, F., Ball, R. & Tanner, H. 1953. An experiment in the artificial circulation of a small Michigan lake. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 83: 222–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Irwin, W., Symons, J. & Robeck, G. 1966. Impoundment destratification by mechanical pumping. J. Sanit. Eng. Div., Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 92 (SA6): 21–40.Google Scholar
  10. Knoppert, P., Rook, J., Hofker, T. & Oskam, G. 1970. Destratification experiments at Rotterdam. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 62: 448–454.Google Scholar
  11. Malueg, K., Tilstra, J., Schults, D. & Powers, C. 1973. Effect of induced aeration upon stratification and eutrophication processes in an Oregon farm pond. Geophysical Monograph Series, Vol. 17, American Geophysical Union. Washington, D.C., p. 578–587.Google Scholar
  12. McConnell, W. 1962. Productivity relations in carboy microcosms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 7: 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Odum, E. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. Saunders. 574 p.Google Scholar
  14. Odum, H. & Hoskin, C. 1958. Comparative studies on the metabolism of marine waters. Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci., Univ. Texas. 5: 65–97.Google Scholar
  15. Robinson, E., Irwin, W. & Symons, J. 1969. Influence of artificial destratification on plankton populations in impoundments. Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci. 30 (182): 1–18.Google Scholar
  16. Solórzano, L. 1969. Determination of ammonia in natural waters by the phenolhypochlorite methode. Limnol. Oceanogr. 14: 799–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Strickland, J. & Parsons, T. 1968. A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Fisheries Res. Board Can., Bull. 167. 311 p.Google Scholar
  18. Symons, J., Irwin, W. & Robeck, G. 1967. Impoundment water quality changes caused by mixing. J. Sanit. Eng. Div., Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 93 (SA2): 1–20.Google Scholar
  19. Toetz, D. 1977. Effects of lake mixing with an axial flow pump on water chemistry and phytoplankton. Hydrobiologia. 55: 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weiss, C. & Breedlove, B. 1973. Water quality changes in an impoundment as a consequence of artificial destratification. Water Resources Research Institute, University of North CarolinaRaleigh. 216 p.Google Scholar
  21. Wirth, T. & Dunst, R. 1967. Limnological changes resulting from artificial destratification and aeration of an impoundment. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Res. Rep. No. 22 (Fisheries). 15 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dale W. Toetz
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesOklahoma State UniversityStillwater

Personalised recommendations