Azolla accessions (section Azolla) from the germplasm collections of the International Rice Research Institute and Washington State University were fingerprinted and classified by enzyme electrophoresis and leaf trichome morphology. A. filiculoides was enzymatically distinctive and also reliably identified by its prominent one-celled trichomes. Neotropical accessions labelled as A. filiculoides proved to be members of other species. Two groups of isolates were designated A. rubra, but those from Japan were identified as A. filiculoides. The A. rubra of Australia-New Zealand was biochemically unique and possessed less protuberant trichomes than A. filiculoides. A. microphylla, A. mexicana, and A. caroliniana were phenetically similar, but a. microphylla was identifiable from the others in the banding patterns of certain enzymes. A. mexicana and A. caroliniana were closely related enzymatically. The two-celled leaf trichomes of these three species were similar in size and shape.
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Zimmerman, W.J., Lumpkin, T.A. & Watanabe, I. Classification of Azolla spp., section Azolla. Euphytica 43, 223–232 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00023057