Skip to main content

Classification of Azolla spp., section Azolla


Azolla accessions (section Azolla) from the germplasm collections of the International Rice Research Institute and Washington State University were fingerprinted and classified by enzyme electrophoresis and leaf trichome morphology. A. filiculoides was enzymatically distinctive and also reliably identified by its prominent one-celled trichomes. Neotropical accessions labelled as A. filiculoides proved to be members of other species. Two groups of isolates were designated A. rubra, but those from Japan were identified as A. filiculoides. The A. rubra of Australia-New Zealand was biochemically unique and possessed less protuberant trichomes than A. filiculoides. A. microphylla, A. mexicana, and A. caroliniana were phenetically similar, but a. microphylla was identifiable from the others in the banding patterns of certain enzymes. A. mexicana and A. caroliniana were closely related enzymatically. The two-celled leaf trichomes of these three species were similar in size and shape.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Dunham, D.G. & K. Fowler, 1987. Taxonomy and species recognition in Azolla Lam. In: IRRI (Eds), Azolla Utilization, pp. 7–16. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

    Google Scholar 

  2. International Rice Research Institute, 1987. Nitrogen fixation and Azolla management. In: IRRI (Eds), Annual Report for 1986, pp. 324–352. International Rice Research Institute Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Lin, Y.X., 1980. A systematic study of the family Azollaceae with reference to the extending utilization of certain species in China. Acta Phytotax 18: 450–447.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Lumpkin, T.A. & D.L. Plucknett, 1982. Azolla as a Green Manure: Use and Management in Crop Production. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Mettenius, G., 1987. Filicinae. In: Plantae Tinneanae, pp. 51–54. Vienna.

  6. Moore, A.W., 1969. Azolla biology and agronomic significance. Bot Rev 35: 17–34.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Perkins, S.K., G.A. Peters, T.A. Lumpkin & H.E. Calvert, 1985. Scanning electron microscopy of perine architecture as a taxonomic tool in the genus Azolla Lamarck Scan Electron Microsc 4: 1719–1734.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Seto, K. & T. Nasu, 1975. Discovery of fossil Azolla massulae from Japan and some notes on recent Japanese species. Bull Osaka Museum Nat Hist 29: 51–60.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Sneath, P.H.A. & R.R. Sokal, 1973. Numerical Taxonomy, the Principles and Practice of Numerical Classification. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Svenson, H.K., 1944. The New World species of Azolla. Amer Fern J 34: 69–84.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Tan, B.C., P. Payawal, I. Watanabe, N. Lacdan & C. Ramirez, 1986. Modern taxonomy of Azolla: a review. Phil Agric 69: 491–512.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Tuzimura, K., F. Ikeda & K. Tukamoto, 1957. Studies on Azolla with reference to a green manure for rice fields. J Sci Soil Manure (Tokyo) 28: 275–278.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Van Oostroom, S.J., 1948. Azollaceae. Flora Neel 1: 79–80.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Wagner, W.H. & F.S. Wagner, 1980. Polyploidy in pteridophytes. In: W.H. Lewes (Ed.), Polyploidy: Biological Significance, pp. 199–214. Plenum Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Watanabe, I., 1982. Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis-its physiology and use in tropical agriculture. In: Y.R. Dommergues & H.G. Diem (Eds), Microbiology of Tropical Soils and Plant Productivity, pp. 169–195. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Zimmerman, W.J., 1984. An assessment of potential ecotypes of neotropical Azolla. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia.

  17. Zimmerman, W.J., T.A. Lumpkin & I. Watanabe, 1989. Isozyme differentiation of Azolla Lam. Euphytica 42: 163–170.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zimmerman, W.J., Lumpkin, T.A. & Watanabe, I. Classification of Azolla spp., section Azolla. Euphytica 43, 223–232 (1989).

Download citation

Key words

  • Azolla
  • classification
  • fingerprinting
  • isozymes
  • taxonomy
  • trichomes